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**Arithmetic Sequences and Series**

Section 9.2 Notes Arithmetic Sequences and Series

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Definitions

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**Sequence is a set of numbers arranged in a particular order**

Sequence is a set of numbers arranged in a particular order. Term is one of the set of numbers in a sequence. Arithmetic Sequence is a sequence in which the difference between two consecutive numbers is constant. Common difference is this constant difference. Arithmetic Series is the indicated sum of the terms of an arithmetic sequence.

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**Suppose the following the 1st five terms of an arithmetic sequence are given**

# of Term (n) 1 2 3 4 5 Term (an) 7 10 13 16 19

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**What would be the next term. 22 How did you find the next term**

What would be the next term? 22 How did you find the next term? Added 3 to 19. You used the recursive formula of an arithmetic sequence. The recursive formula for an arithmetic sequence is

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If these numbers were graphed as ordered pairs (n, an) what type of function would it be? Linear function What does the common difference represent in this function? Slope Write an equation for this arithmetic sequence in terms of an. an = 3(n − 1) + 7 or an = 3n + 4

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To find the value of any of the following in an arithmetic sequence: a1 first term of the sequence n which term of the sequence d common difference of the sequence an value of the nth term

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Use The explicit formula for an arithmetic sequence is an = a1 + (n – 1)d or an = dn + c, where c is the zero term

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**C. To find “one” arithmetic mean between two numbers a and b use: D**

C. To find “one” arithmetic mean between two numbers a and b use: D. To find the sum of an arithmetic sequence (arithmetic series) use:

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**Or substitute a1 + (n − 1)d for an**

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**E. Solve the following arithmetic sequence or series problems. 1**

E. Solve the following arithmetic sequence or series problems. 1. Find n for the sequence for which an = 633, a1 = 9, and d = 24 Steps: a. Use: an = a1 + (n – 1)d

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**b. Substitute the given values and solve for the unknown value**

b. Substitute the given values and solve for the unknown value. So 633 is the 27th term of the given sequence.

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**2. Find the 58th term of the sequence: 10, 4, −2, … Steps: a**

2. Find the 58th term of the sequence: 10, 4, −2, … Steps: a. Find a1, n, and d. a1 = 10 n = 58 d = −6 b. Use: an = a1 + (n – 1)d

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**c. Substitute the given values and solve for the unknown value**

c. Substitute the given values and solve for the unknown value. So the 58th term of the sequence is −332.

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An arithmetic mean of two numbers a and b is simply their average Numbers m1, m2, m3,… are called arithmetic means between a and b if a, m1, m2, m3,…, b forms an arithmetic sequence.

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**3. Form a sequence that has 5 arithmetic means between −11 and 19**

3. Form a sequence that has 5 arithmetic means between −11 and 19. Steps: a. The given sequence is −11, m1, m2, m3, m4, m5, 19 b. a1 = −11, n = 7, an = 19

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**c. Use: an = a1 + (n – 1)d to solve for d**

c. Use: an = a1 + (n – 1)d to solve for d. So the arithmetic sequence is: −11, −6, −1, 4, 9, 14, 19

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**4. Find n for a sequence for which a1 = 5, d = 3, and Sn = 440. **

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**n must be a positive integer so n = 16.**

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**5. If a3 = 7 and a30 = 142, find a20. Steps: a**

5. If a3 = 7 and a30 = 142, find a20. Steps: a. Write two explicit equations to make a system of equations to solve for a1 and d. b. In the first equation use a30 = 142 and n = 30 to make the equation: 142 = a1 + (30 − 1)d or 142 = a1 + 29d. c. In the second equation use a3 = 7 and n = 3 to make the equation: 7 = a1 + (3 − 1)d or 7 = a1 + 2d.

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**d. Solve for d in the system of equations.**

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e. Solve for a1.

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f. Solve for a20.

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6. A lecture hall has 20 seats in the front row and two seats more in each following row than in the preceding one. If there are 15 rows, what is the seating capacity of the hall? a1 = 20; d = 2; n = 15

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Summation Notation Summation notation is defined by where i is called the index, n is the upper limit, and 1 is the lower limit.

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Find the following sum. To do a sum in a graphing calculator depends on the calculator.

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