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**For a geometric sequence, , for every positive integer k.**

4/20/2017 For example; 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, 1280, 2560, 5120, 10240, 20480, . . . In the previous section, we learned about arithmetic sequences. Arithmetic sequences have a common difference. Example: 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, (Arithmetic Sequence) Another type of sequence is a geometric sequence. The ratio of a term in a geometric sequence to its preceding term is always the same number. A geometric sequence is a sequence in which the ratio between a term and its preceding term is a constant. For a geometric sequence, , for every positive integer k. The number, r, is called the common ratio for the geometric sequence. For the geometric sequence above, the common ratio is 2. For a geometric sequence, the general term is: an = a1 r(n-1) , where a1 is the first term and r is the common ratio. General Term of an Arithmetic Sequence

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**The general term for that in a geometric sequence, an = a1 r(n-1)**

4/20/2017 Example 1. Find the general term for the geometric sequence: 8, 32, 128, 512, 2048, . . . The common ratio is, Note that we could have used the ratio between any two consecutive terms, i.e., The general term for that in a geometric sequence, an = a1 r(n-1) So for the geometric sequence above, an = (8) 4(n-1) Simplifying this expression even more: Your Turn Problem #1 Find the general term for the geometric sequence:

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**Now we will use the general term formula of a geometric sequence,**

4/20/2017 The common ratio, Now we will use the general term formula of a geometric sequence, Your Turn Problem #2 0.2, 0.04, 0.008, ,… Find the general term for the geometric sequence:

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**For this sequence, the common ratio, r = (-24) ¸ (-4) = 6**

4/20/2017 Example 3. Find the 9th term for the geometric sequence, -4, -24, -144, -864, . . . For a geometric sequence, the formula for the general term can be used to find a desired term. For this sequence, the common ratio, r = (-24) ¸ (-4) = 6 So, an = (-4) 6(n–1) Since we want the 9th term, let n = 9. Thus, a9 = (-4) 6(9–1) = (-4) 68 = (-4) (1,679,616) = -6,718,464 Answer: The 9th term, a9 = -6,718,464 Find the 12th term for the geometric sequence: 1.3, 3.9, 11.7, 35.1, . . . Your Turn Problem #3 Answer: The 12th term, a12 = 230,291.1

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**Adding the Terms of a Geometric Sequence**

4/20/2017 To find the sum of an geometric sequence, we need to know the first term, a1, the common ratio, r, and the number of terms, n. Adding the Terms of a Geometric Sequence or Note: There are many forms of the formula for the sum of a geometric sequence. The two forms above are commonly used. Sum formula for the first n terms of a geometric sequence. Example 4. Find the sum of the first 8 terms of the geometric sequence, 6, 60, 600, 6000, . . . For this sum, n = 8 and r = 60 ¸ 6 = 10 Using the first form of the finite sum formula with a1 = 6, n = 8, and r = 10, we get Answer: The sum of the first 8 terms is 66,666,666. Your Turn Problem #4 Find the sum of the first 12 terms of the geometric sequence, 3, -12, 48, -192, . . . Answer: The sum of the first 12 terms is S12 = -10,066,329

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**For this sequence, r = -175 ¸ 875 = -1/5 For this sum, n = 9**

4/20/2017 Example 5. Find the sum of the first 9 terms of the geometric sequence, 875, -175, 35, 7, . . . The finite sum formula can be used with any geometric sequence even if the common ratio, r, is a fraction or a negative number. For this sequence, r = -175 ¸ 875 = -1/5 For this sum, n = 9 Using the finite sum formula with a1 = 875, n = 9, and r = -1/5, we get Answer: The sum of the first 9 terms, S9 = /3125 or Your Turn Problem #5 Find the sum of the first 8 terms of the geometric sequence, 144, 96, 64, 42 2/3, . . .

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**Now use the sum formula:**

4/20/2017 Example 6. Find , ,076,643 For a geometric sequence, if the number of terms of to be added is unknown, we need to either count the number of terms or use the nth-term formula to find n. For this sum, we must first determine if this is a geometric sequence. To do this, determine if there is a common ratio between the terms. For this sequence, a2 ¸ a1 = 11, a3 ¸ a2 = 11, a4 ¸ a3 = 11. So, there is a common ratio, r = 11, which means that we are, in fact, working with a geometric sequence. To find the number of terms, n, use the nth term formula. Then use the sum formula with n, a1 = 3, and r = 11, Now use the sum formula: Answer: 707,384,307 (Solve by matching bases or using logs.) Your Turn Problem #6 Find (-7) + (-14) + (-28) + (-56) (-917,504) Answer: r = 2 and n = 18. The sum is -1,835,001.

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**Answer: a1 = -6, n = 12, and r = -6. The sum is 1,865,813,430.**

4/20/2017 Geometric Series Summation notation can be used to indicate the sum of a geometric sequence. When asked to evaluate a sum, write out at least the first three terms. Good idea but not necessary to calculate the last term, n. Example 7. Find We can calculate this sum using the finite sum formula with a1 = 5, r = 5, and n = 9. Recall n= = 9. (upper limit – lower limit +1) Answer: 2,441,405 Your Turn Problem #7 Answer: a1 = -6, n = 12, and r = -6. The sum is 1,865,813,430.

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**Using the finite sum formula,**

4/20/2017 Example 8. Find Using the finite sum formula, with a1 = 27, r = 1/3, and n = 11 (13-3+1), we get: Answer: Your Turn Problem #8 Answer: The sum is –531,684.

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**Infinite Geometric Series**

4/20/2017 Infinite Geometric Series The sum of an infinite geometric sequence is give by the formula: Example 9. Find Since |r|<1, we can use the infinite sum formula with a1 = ¾ and r = ¾ . Your Turn Problem #9

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**Writing Repeating Decimals in Fractional Form**

4/20/2017 Writing Repeating Decimals in Fractional Form A repeating decimal number can be written as the sum of terms from a geometric sequence. The common ratio, r, is 10-R, where R equals the number of digits that are repeated. Since 0<| r|<1, the infinite sum formula can be used to write the repeating decimal in fractional form. Note that the terms 0.63, , , form a geometric sequence with a common ratio of r = = 1/100 = 0.01 (two digits, 6 and 3, are repeated so R=2). Using the infinite sum formula with a1 = 0.63 and r = 0.01 , we get Your Turn Problem #10

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**Using the infinite sum formula with a1 = 0.057 and r = 0.01 , we get**

4/20/2017 If part of a repeating decimal number does not repeat, then treat that non-repeating part as a terminating decimal when converting to fraction form. Note that the terms 0.057, , , form a geometric sequence with a common ratio of r = = 1/100 = 0.01 (two digits, 5 and 7, are repeated so R=2). Using the infinite sum formula with a1 = and r = , we get Your Turn Problem #11 The End

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