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Living in a Digital World Discovering Computers 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Living in a Digital World Discovering Computers 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Living in a Digital World Discovering Computers 2010

2 System Software What is System software? – consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices. – There are two types of system software: 2 Operating systems Utility Programs

3 Operating Systems An operating system (OS) is software that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources. 3 Pages 398 - 399 Start and shut down a computer Provide a user interface Manage programs Manage memory Coordinate tasks Configure devices Establish an Internet connection Monitor performance Provide utilities Automatically update Control a network Administer security

4 Operating Systems 4 administer security start the computer monitor performance control a network provide a user interface manage programs provide file management and other utilities establish an Internet connection schedule jobs and configure devices

5 Operating System Functions The process of starting or restarting a computer is called booting. 5 Cold boot Turning on a computer that has been powered off completely Warm boot Using the operating system to restart a computer

6 Operating System Functions 6

7 A boot drive is the drive from which your computer starts. 7 You can boot from a boot disk, which contains a few system files that will start the computer. –Also called a recovery disk

8 Operating System Functions An operating system includes various shut down options: 8 Page 402 Sleep mode saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low- power state. Hibernate saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer.

9 Operating System Functions What is a user interface? – controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen. – There are two main types of user interfaces: GUI – graphical user interface Command Line 9

10 Operating System Functions A graphical user interface (GUI) allows the user to interact with menus and visual images. 10

11 Operating System Functions With a command-line interface, a user uses the keyboard to enter data and instructions. They are difficult to use because they require exact spelling, grammar, and punctuation. 11

12 Operating System Functions How an operating system handles programs directly affects your productivity 12 Single user and multiuser Single tasking and multitasking Foreground and background Multiprocessing

13 Operating System Functions What is multi-tasking? – Working on two or more programs that reside in memory at same time. – Foreground Contains programs you are currently using. – Background Contains programs that are running, but not currently in use. 13

14 Operating System Functions A multiprocessing operating system that is capable of supporting and using more than one processor. A multiuser operating system is capable of supporting more than one user at a time. – Many operating systems only service one user at a time. – Some operating systems must handle requests from many users at the same time. Web servers, Database servers, DNS servers, File servers, etc… Windows Server & Unix operating systems can do both functions. 14

15 Operating System Functions Memory management optimizes the use of RAM. Virtual memory refers to an operating system borrowing space from the hard drive when it runs out of space in RAM memory. 15

16 Operating System Functions 16

17 Operating System Functions Operating systems typically provide a means to establish connections to the Internet, wireless network or other networks. 17

18 Operating System Functions A performance monitor is a program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices. 18

19 Operating System Functions MAC OS X – Activity Monitor 19

20 Operating System Functions Operating systems often provide tools for: 20 Managing files Searching for files Viewing images Securing a computer Uninstalling programs Cleaning up disks Defragmenting disks Diagnosing problems Backing up files and disks Setting up screen savers

21 Types of Operating Systems 21 Three categories of operating systems: Stand-alone Embedded Network

22 Types of Operating Systems 22

23 Stand-Alone Operating Systems A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device. 23 Windows Vista Mac OS X UNIXLinux

24 Stand-Alone Operating Systems DOS – Developed in the early 1980s for personal computers. – Microsoft developed the operating system for IBM. – No longer used today because it doesn’t offer a GUI. 24

25 Stand-Alone Operating Systems Windows Vista is Microsoft’s fastest, most efficient operating system to date. – Windows 7 is slated to replace it as Microsoft’s latest operating system. 25

26 Stand-Alone Operating Systems 26

27 Stand-Alone Operating Systems The Macintosh operating system has set the standard for operating system ease of use. Latest version is Mac OS X named “Snow Leopard”. 27

28 Stand-Alone Operating Systems Unix – Used mainly by power users because if its flexibility and power. – Primarily used for servers, but available for computers of all sizes. – Most versions offer a GUI. – Developed in the early 1970s. 28

29 Stand-Alone Operating Systems Linux – Popular Unix-type operating system. – Many versions of Linux are available and most are free. – Open-source software: code is available to public. – Created by Linus Torvalds 29

30 Server Operating Systems Windows Server 2008 UNIX LinuxSolaris 30

31 Server Operating Systems Windows Server 2008 is an upgrade to Windows Server 2003. – Operating system used to service the requests of many users. – Web servers, File servers, Database servers, etc… Most editions include Hyper-V, a virtualization technology. – Virtualization is the practice of sharing or pooling computing resources. 31

32 Embedded Operating Systems An embedded operating system resides on a ROM chip on a mobile device or consumer electronic device. 32 Windows Embedded CE Windows Mobile Palm OSiPhone OS Blackberry Embedded Linux Symbian OS

33 Embedded Operating Systems 33

34 Utility Programs A utility program is a type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks. – Also called a utility. 34

35 Utility Programs A file manager is a utility that performs functions related to file management. – Displaying a list of files – Organizing files in folders. – Copying, renaming, deleting, moving, and sorting files and folders. – Creating shortcuts. 35

36 Utility Programs A search utility is a program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify. 36

37 Utility Programs An image viewer allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file. An uninstaller removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files. 37

38 Utility Programs A disk cleanup utility searches for and removes unnecessary files. – Downloaded program files. – Temporary Internet files. – Deleted files. – Unused program files. 38

39 Utility Programs A disk defragmenter reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster. – Defragmenting 39

40 Utility Programs Disk defragmenter 40

41 Utility Programs A backup utility allows users to copy files or an entire hard disk to another storage medium. A restore utility reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original form. 41

42 Utility Programs A personal firewall detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions. 42

43 Utility Programs An anti-virus program detects and protects a computer from computer viruses. An anti-spyware program detects and protects a computer from spyware. – Spyware is a program that is placed on a computer without the owner’s knowledge. 43

44 Utility Programs Filters are programs that remove or block certain items from being displayed. 44 Web filters Anti-spam programs Phishing filters Pop-up blockers

45 Utility Programs A file compression utility shrinks the size of a file(s). – Compressing files frees up room on the storage media. Compressed files sometimes are called zipped files – Can be uncompressed. – Software is required to compress and uncompress files. 45

46 Utility Programs A media player allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video files on your computer. 46

47 Utility Programs Disc burning software writes text, graphics, audio, and video files on a recordable or rewritable optical disc. 47

48 Utility Programs A personal computer maintenance utility identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk problems, and includes the capability of improving a computer’s performance. 48

49 Quote of the day… "Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I'm not sure about the universe." --Albert Einstein 49

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