# Chapter 10 Properties of Solids and Liquids

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Chapter 10 Properties of Solids and Liquids
10.3 Electronegativity and Polarity Learning Goal Use electronegativity to determine the polarity of a bond or a molecule.

Electronegativity and Polarity
We can learn more about the chemistry of compounds by understanding how electrons are shared in bonds. Bonds formed by identical atoms share the bonding electrons equally. Bonds formed between different atoms share the bonding electrons unequally.

Electronegativity Electronegativity is the relative ability of atoms to attract shared electrons is higher for nonmetals; fluorine has the highest with a value of 4.0 is lower for metals; cesium and francium have the lowest value of 0.7

Electronegativity We can use the periodic table to predict the relative electronegativity value for each element. Electronegativity increases from left to right going across a period on the periodic table decreases going down a group on the periodic table

Electronegativity Figure The electronegativity values of the representative elements in Group 1A (1) to Group 7A (17), which indicate the ability of atoms to attract shared electrons, increase going across a period from left to right and decrease going down a group.

Learning Check Using the periodic table, predict the order of increasing electronegativity for the elements O, K, and C.

Solution Using the periodic table, predict the order of increasing electronegativity for the elements O, K, and C Answer: K, C, O K, period 4, group 1A (1), has an electronegativity value of 0.8. C, period 2, group 4A (14), has an electronegativity value of 2.5. O, period 2, group 6A (16), has an electronegativity value of 3.5.

Types of Covalent Bonds
Bonds can be described by the difference in the electronegativity of the bonding atoms. Two types of covalent bonds occur in molecules: nonpolar covalent bonds; bonding electrons are shared equally polar covalent bonds; bonding electrons are shared unequally

Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
A nonpolar covalent bond between nonmetal atoms consists of an equal (or almost equal) sharing of electrons has a zero (or close to zero) electronegativity difference (0.0 to 0.4)

Polar Covalent Bonds A polar covalent bond between nonmetal atoms consists of an unequal sharing of electrons has an electronegativity difference of 0.5 to 1.7

Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
Figure In the nonpolar covalent bond of H2, electrons are shared equally. In the polar covalent bond of HCl, electrons are shared unequally.

Dipoles and Bond Polarity
Bonds become more polar as the difference in electronegativity increases. A polar covalent bond that has a separation of charges is called a dipole. The positive and negative ends are represented by the Greek letter delta, with a + or − charge. Arrows can also be used to represent dipoles.

Variations in Bonding Variations in bonding are continuous. Bonds with an electronegativity difference of 0.0 – 0.4 are considered nonpolar. Bonds with an electronegativity difference of 0.5 – 1.7 are considered polar covalent. Bonds with an electronegativity difference greater than 1.8 are considered ionic.

Electronegativity and Types of Bonds

Predicting Bond Type

Learning Check Complete the following table for each of the bonds indicated.

Solution Complete the following table for each of the bonds indicated.

Polarity of Molecules—Nonpolar
In a nonpolar molecule, all the bonds are nonpolar, or the polar bonds (dipoles) cancel each other out. Molecules such as H2, Cl2 and CH4 are nonpolar because they contain only nonpolar bonds.

Polarity of Molecules—Nonpolar
A nonpolar molecule also occurs when polar bonds (dipoles) cancel each other because of a symmetrical arrangement. Molecules such as CO2 and CCl4 contain polar bonds with dipoles that cancel each other out.

Polarity of Molecules—Polar
A polar molecule occurs when the dipoles from individual bonds do not cancel each other out. For molecules with two or more electron groups, the shape (such as bent or trigonal pyrimidal) determines whether or not the dipoles cancel.

Polarity of Molecules—Polar
Examples of polar molecules include HCl, H2O, and NH3. HCl is linear and contains a polar bond. H2O is bent and contains two polar bonds as well as two lone pairs on oxygen.

Polarity of Molecules—Polar
NH3 is trigonal pyrimidal, and contains three polar bonds and a lone pair on nitrogen.

Guide to Determination of Polarity of a Molecule

Learning Check Determine if the molecule OF2 is polar or nonpolar.

Solution Determine if the molecule OF2 is polar or nonpolar. Step 1 Determine if the bonds are polar or nonpolar covalent. Oxygen has an electronegativity of 3.5, and fluorine has an electronegativity of 4.0. O—F bonds are polar covalent.

Solution Determine if the molecule OF2 is polar or nonpolar. Step 2 If the bonds are polar covalent, draw the electron-dot formula and determine if the dipoles cancel. Dipoles in O—F bonds do not cancel; the molecule is polar.