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1 Chapter 4 Compounds and Their Bonds 4.7 Shapes and Polarity of Molecules Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 4 Compounds and Their Bonds 4.7 Shapes and Polarity of Molecules Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 4 Compounds and Their Bonds 4.7 Shapes and Polarity of Molecules Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

2 2 VSEPR In the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory (VSEPR), the electron groups around a central atom are arranged as far apart from each other as possible. have the least amount of repulsion of the negatively charged electrons. have a geometry around the central atom that determines molecular shape.

3 3 Guide to Predicting Molecular Shape (VSEPR Theory) 1. Write the electron-dot structure. 2. Arrange the electron groups around the central atom to minimize repulsion. 3. Use the atoms bonded to the central to determine the shape of the molecule.

4 4 Four Electron Groups In a molecule of CH 4, there are four electron groups around C. repulsion is minimized by placing four electron groups at angles of 109°, which is a tetrahedral arrangement. the shape with four bonded atoms is tetrahedral. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

5 5 Three Bonding Atoms and One Lone Pair In a molecule of NH 3, three electron groups bond to H atoms and the fourth one is a lone (nonbonding) pair. repulsion is minimized with 4 electron groups in a tetrahedral arrangement. with three bonded atoms, the shape is pyramidal. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

6 6 Two Bonding Atoms and Two Lone Pairs In a molecule of H 2 O, two electrons groups are bonded to H atoms and two are lone pairs (4 electron groups). four electron groups minimize repulsion in a tetrahedral arrangement. the shape with two bonded atoms is bent(~109  ). Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

7 7 Electron Group Bonded Atoms Lone Pairs Bond Angles Molecular Shape Example tetrahedralCH 4 431~109PyramidalNH 3 422~109BentH2OH2O Shapes with 4 Electron Groups Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

8 8 Learning Check State the number of electron groups, lone pairs, and use VSEPR theory to determine the shape of the following molecules or ions. 1) tetrahedral 2) pyramidal3) bent A. PF 3 B. H 2 S C. CCl 4

9 9 Solution A. PF 3 4 electron groups, 1 lone pair, (2) pyramidal B.H 2 S 4 electron groups, 2 lone pairs, (3) bent C. CCl 4 4 electron groups, 0 lone pairs, (1) tetrahedral

10 10 Polar Molecules A polar molecule contains polar bonds. has a separation of positive and negative charge called a dipole indicated with  + and  -. has dipoles that do not cancel.  +  - H–Cl H — N — H dipole H dipoles do not cancel

11 11 Nonpolar Molecules A nonpolar molecule contains nonpolar bonds. Cl–Cl H–H or has a symmetrical arrangement of polar bonds. O=C=O Cl Cl–C–Cl Cl dipoles cancel

12 12 Determining Molecular Polarity STEP 1: Write the electron-dot formula. STEP 2: Determine the polarity of the bonds. STEP 3: Determine if dipoles cancel. Example: H 2 O.. H─O : H 2 O is polar │ H dipoles do not cancel

13 13 Learning Check Identify each of the following molecules as 1) polar or 2) nonpolar. Explain. A. PBr 3 B. HBr C. Br 2 D. SiBr 4

14 14 Solution Identify each of the following molecules as 1) polar or 2) nonpolar. Explain. A. PBr 3 1) pyramidal; dipoles don’t cancel; polar B. HBr1) linear; one polar bond (dipole); polar C. Br 2 2) linear; nonpolar bond; nonpolar D. SiBr 4 2) tetrahedral; dipoles cancel; nonpolar


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