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Health Consequences of Environmental Degradation and Social Injustice Martin Donohoe, M.D., F.A.C.P.

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Presentation on theme: "Health Consequences of Environmental Degradation and Social Injustice Martin Donohoe, M.D., F.A.C.P."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Consequences of Environmental Degradation and Social Injustice Martin Donohoe, M.D., F.A.C.P.

2 Am I Stoned? A 1999 Utah anti-drug pamphlet warns: “Danger signs that your child may be smoking marijuana include excessive preoccupation with social causes, race relations, and environmental issues”

3 Our Home

4

5 Perspective The earth spins at 1,038 mph at the equator, between 700 mph and 900 mph at mid-latitudes The earth spins at 1,038 mph at the equator, between 700 mph and 900 mph at mid-latitudes The earth rotates around sun at 18.5 miles/sec The earth rotates around sun at 18.5 miles/sec The solar system orbits the center of the Milky Way Galaxy at 137 miles/sec The solar system orbits the center of the Milky Way Galaxy at 137 miles/sec One rotation per 225 million years One rotation per 225 million years

6 Perspective The sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy The sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy The Milky Way is one of over one hundred billion galaxies in the known universe The Milky Way is one of over one hundred billion galaxies in the known universe The universe may be one of an infinite number of universes The universe may be one of an infinite number of universes

7 The Planets

8 Our Solar System

9 Jupiter = one pixel, Earth = invisible

10 Sun = one pixel, Jupiter = invisible

11 Portland, Oregon Mount Hood

12 Multnomah Falls, Oregon

13 The Environment The natural environment The natural environment The built environment The built environment The social environment The social environment

14 Causes of Environmental Degradation Overpopulation Overpopulation Pollution Pollution Deforestation Deforestation Global Warming Global Warming Agricultural/Fishing Practices Agricultural/Fishing Practices Overconsumption / Affluenza Overconsumption / Affluenza Militarization Militarization

15 Causes of Environmental Degradation Maldistribution of Wealth Maldistribution of Wealth National and Global Political and Economic Institutions National and Global Political and Economic Institutions Poor education Poor education Media manipulation and inaccurate reporting Media manipulation and inaccurate reporting Unbalanced political influence Unbalanced political influence Citizen apathy Citizen apathy

16 Consequences of Environmental Degradation Increased poverty and overcrowding Increased poverty and overcrowding Famine Famine Weather extremes Weather extremes Species loss Species loss Medical illnesses Medical illnesses Infectious diseases Infectious diseases

17 Consequences of Environmental Degradation Death (40% of world’s yearly deaths linked to water, air, and soil pollution) Death (40% of world’s yearly deaths linked to water, air, and soil pollution) War War Ecological footprint (22 hectares/person) exceeds Earth’s biological capacity (16 hectares/person) Ecological footprint (22 hectares/person) exceeds Earth’s biological capacity (16 hectares/person) Malthusian chaos and disaster Malthusian chaos and disaster Tragedy of the Commons Tragedy of the Commons

18 Economic Costs of Environmental Diseases Estimated at $132-165 billion/year in the U.S. alone ($1.25-$2.0 billion in Oregon) Estimated at $132-165 billion/year in the U.S. alone ($1.25-$2.0 billion in Oregon) Does not count the psychological and emotional costs of the human suffering involved for the victims, their families, and their communities Does not count the psychological and emotional costs of the human suffering involved for the victims, their families, and their communities

19 Economic Costs of Environmental Diseases: Oregon Adult and childhood asthma: $30 million Adult and childhood asthma: $30 million Childhood asthma: $28 million Childhood asthma: $28 million Adult cardiovascular disease: $342 million Adult cardiovascular disease: $342 million Childhood cancer: $9 million Childhood cancer: $9 million Childhood lead exposure: $878 million Childhood lead exposure: $878 million Birth defects: $3 million Birth defects: $3 million Neurobehavioral disorders: $187 million Neurobehavioral disorders: $187 million Source: OEC, The Price of Pollution, 2/08

20 Overpopulation World population - exponential growth World population - exponential growth 1 billion in 1800 1 billion in 1800 2.5 billion in 1950 2.5 billion in 1950 6 billion in 2000 6 billion in 2000 6.8 billion in 2009 6.8 billion in 2009 est. 8-10 billion by 2050 est. 8-10 billion by 2050 More people added to the planet in the last 40 years than in all previous recorded history More people added to the planet in the last 40 years than in all previous recorded history

21 Overpopulation Africa, Asia, and Latin America primarily affected Africa, Asia, and Latin America primarily affected Causes: Causes: Poverty Poverty Women’s rights issues – impaired access to reproductive health care and education, political/legal/economic/social marginalization Women’s rights issues – impaired access to reproductive health care and education, political/legal/economic/social marginalization

22 World Population

23 Overpopulation Urbanization Urbanization 20-30 million people/year leave rural for urban areas 20-30 million people/year leave rural for urban areas 2007: first time in history that more than half the world’s population live in urban areas 2007: first time in history that more than half the world’s population live in urban areas World migrant population = 200 million -economic, war and environmental refugees World migrant population = 200 million -economic, war and environmental refugees

24

25 Urban Sprawl Since the 1960’s America’s metropolitan areas have been consuming land at a rate 4x faster that population growth Since the 1960’s America’s metropolitan areas have been consuming land at a rate 4x faster that population growth 6,000 acres of open space lost per day 6,000 acres of open space lost per day

26 Wallace Stegner “We simply need … wild country available to us, even if we never do more than drive to its edge and look in. For it can be a means of reassuring ourselves of our sanity as creatures, a part of the geography of hope”

27 Air Pollution

28

29 Top ten most polluted cities in the world are in China and India Top ten most polluted cities in the world are in China and India World’s Most Polluted Places (2007): World’s Most Polluted Places (2007): Sumgayit, Azerbaijan; Linfen, China; Tianying, China; Sukinda, India; Vapi, India; La Oroya, Peru; Dzerzhinsk, Russia; Norilsk, Russia; Chernobyl, Ukraine; and Kabwe, Zambia Sumgayit, Azerbaijan; Linfen, China; Tianying, China; Sukinda, India; Vapi, India; La Oroya, Peru; Dzerzhinsk, Russia; Norilsk, Russia; Chernobyl, Ukraine; and Kabwe, Zambia

30 Air Pollution Most polluted areas in US: Most polluted areas in US: 2001 – LA 2001 – LA 2002 – Houston 2002 – Houston 2003 – San Joaquin Valley in Central California 2003 – San Joaquin Valley in Central California 2004, 2006 - 2008 – LA 2004, 2006 - 2008 – LA

31 Health Effects of Air Pollution Causes approximately 60,000 - 75,000 premature deaths/yr. in U.S. (656,000 in China) Causes approximately 60,000 - 75,000 premature deaths/yr. in U.S. (656,000 in China) More than are killed by auto accidents More than are killed by auto accidents 1.8 million worldwide 1.8 million worldwide

32 Health Effects of Air Pollution Air pollution causes asthma and impairs lung development and function Air pollution causes asthma and impairs lung development and function Deaths from cardiopulmonary diseases correlate with air pollution levels in US cities Deaths from cardiopulmonary diseases correlate with air pollution levels in US cities Both day to day and over time Both day to day and over time

33 Health Effects of Air Pollution Increased admissions for CHF, asthma, COPD, PVD, and cerebrovascular disease (stroke and TIA) Increased admissions for CHF, asthma, COPD, PVD, and cerebrovascular disease (stroke and TIA) Increased ventricular arrythmias Increased ventricular arrythmias Increased lung cancer mortality Increased lung cancer mortality Decreased exercise tolerance, increased pulmonary symptoms Decreased exercise tolerance, increased pulmonary symptoms

34 Health Effects of Air Pollution Increased risk of DVT Increased risk of DVT Impaired sperm production Impaired sperm production Increase in SGA and LBW infants Increase in SGA and LBW infants Increased risk of appendicitis Increased risk of appendicitis ?Via link with inflammation? ?Via link with inflammation? Increased numbers of migraines Increased numbers of migraines

35 Air Pollution Coarse, fine and ultrafine particles Coarse, fine and ultrafine particles Ultrafines not regulated, may be most dangerous Ultrafines not regulated, may be most dangerous Nanoparticles may contribute to health risks Nanoparticles may contribute to health risks

36

37 Air pollution: The Good News Reductions in air pollution under Clean Air Act Account for up to 15% of overall increase in life expectancy in major U.S. metropolitan areas Reductions in air pollution under Clean Air Act Account for up to 15% of overall increase in life expectancy in major U.S. metropolitan areas

38 Effects of Ozone Destruction Ozone hole over Antarctic (2½X size of Europe) Ozone hole over Antarctic (2½X size of Europe) Increased cataracts (UV damage) Increased cataracts (UV damage) Increased lifetime melanoma risk Increased lifetime melanoma risk 1/1500 - 1930 1/1500 - 1930 1/68 - today 1/68 - today

39 Antarctic Ozone Hole

40 Automobiles

41 Automobiles Number of autos -US: 1 car/2 people -Mexico: 1/8 -China: 1/100 (increasing, surpassed US auto sales in 2009) Number of autos -US: 1 car/2 people -Mexico: 1/8 -China: 1/100 (increasing, surpassed US auto sales in 2009) Global auto population to double in 25-50 years, from 622 million passenger vehicles in 2008 Global auto population to double in 25-50 years, from 622 million passenger vehicles in 2008

42 Automobiles Average miles traveled/car/year in U.S. Average miles traveled/car/year in U.S. 1965 - 4,570 mi. 1965 - 4,570 mi. 1975 - 6,150 mi. 1975 - 6,150 mi. 1985 - 7,460 mi. 1985 - 7,460 mi. 1995 - 9,220 mi. 1995 - 9,220 mi. 2008 – 12,000 mi. 2008 – 12,000 mi.

43 Automobiles Average fuel efficiency of U.S. autos stagnant Average fuel efficiency of U.S. autos stagnant Cars: 27.5 mpg required by 2011, 35 mpg required by 2020 Cars: 27.5 mpg required by 2011, 35 mpg required by 2020 Light trucks / SUVs: 23.5 mpg by 2011, 28.6 mpg by 2015 Light trucks / SUVs: 23.5 mpg by 2011, 28.6 mpg by 2015 European and Japanese standards higher European and Japanese standards higher Relatively low oil prices (until recently) Relatively low oil prices (until recently)

44 Automobiles Growing market for low-efficiency pickups, minivans, and sport-utility vehicles Growing market for low-efficiency pickups, minivans, and sport-utility vehicles SUVs 50% of all private vehicles SUVs 50% of all private vehicles Ford Model T – 25 mpg (1908); Avg. Ford vehicle – 22.6 mpg (2003) Ford Model T – 25 mpg (1908); Avg. Ford vehicle – 22.6 mpg (2003)

45 Automobiles: Alternatives Rapid transit -industry squashed in 1930’s and 40’s (GM, Standard Oil, Firestone, etc.) -Convicted under Sherman Antitrust Act Rapid transit -industry squashed in 1930’s and 40’s (GM, Standard Oil, Firestone, etc.) -Convicted under Sherman Antitrust Act

46 Automobiles: Alternatives Car sharing Car sharing Pay-as-you-drive auto insurance Pay-as-you-drive auto insurance “ Peak Pricing ” and “ Congestion Fees ” “ Peak Pricing ” and “ Congestion Fees ” E.g., London → 21% decrease in traffic, 43% increase in bus ridership, cleaner air E.g., London → 21% decrease in traffic, 43% increase in bus ridership, cleaner air Bicycles/walking Bicycles/walking 30% of all trips by bike in Amsterdam; 2% in Portland, OR 30% of all trips by bike in Amsterdam; 2% in Portland, OR

47 Alternatives to Automobiles Busses Busses Trains Trains 15 x more efficient per passenger than autos 15 x more efficient per passenger than autos Amtrak receives 1/3 the amount of federal funding (adjusted for inflation) that it received 20 years ago Amtrak receives 1/3 the amount of federal funding (adjusted for inflation) that it received 20 years ago

48 Automobiles: Alternatives Electric cars -killed by oil companies, automakers in early 20th century Electric cars -killed by oil companies, automakers in early 20th century Natural gas, gasohol, and biodiesel Natural gas, gasohol, and biodiesel Beware Jevon’s Paradox (Increased efficiency leading to increased overall energy consumption) Beware Jevon’s Paradox (Increased efficiency leading to increased overall energy consumption) Telecommuting Telecommuting

49 Automobiles: Alternatives Solar cars Solar cars Hydrogen-powered cars Hydrogen-powered cars Byproduct = water Byproduct = water Problem: Hydrogen production requires fossil fuels Problem: Hydrogen production requires fossil fuels

50 US Energy Consumption by Fuel Oil – 40% Oil – 40% Natural gas – 24% Natural gas – 24% Coal – 22% Coal – 22% Nuclear – 8.5% Nuclear – 8.5% Hydroelectric – 2.5% Hydroelectric – 2.5% Other Renewables (mostly biomass, small amounts geothermal, wind, and solar) – 4.5% Other Renewables (mostly biomass, small amounts geothermal, wind, and solar) – 4.5%

51 U.S. Energy Sources for Electricity Coal – 50% Coal – 50% Nuclear – 19% Nuclear – 19% Gas – 19% Gas – 19% Hydroelectric – 6% Hydroelectric – 6% Oil – 3% Oil – 3% Renewables – 2% Renewables – 2% Electricity generation utilizes 40% of US energy Electricity generation utilizes 40% of US energy

52 US Energy Consumption Transportation – 29% Transportation – 29% Industrial – 25% Industrial – 25% Residential – 11.5% Residential – 11.5% Commercial – 8.5% Commercial – 8.5%

53 Energy Spending/Research Federal funding for energy R&D (1974- 2005, in 2005 dollars): Federal funding for energy R&D (1974- 2005, in 2005 dollars): $50 billion: nuclear $50 billion: nuclear $20 billion: fossil fuels $20 billion: fossil fuels $12 billion: renewable energy $12 billion: renewable energy $12 billion: efficiency $12 billion: efficiency

54 Petroleum Industry Profits Mergers squelch competition, drive up prices Mergers squelch competition, drive up prices Record-breaking oil company profits Record-breaking oil company profits The world’s 6 most profitable corporations in 2008 were oil companies The world’s 6 most profitable corporations in 2008 were oil companies Exxon: $45 billion in 2008 Exxon: $45 billion in 2008 Largest in U.S. history Largest in U.S. history Exceeds GDP of 2/3 of world’s nations Exceeds GDP of 2/3 of world’s nations

55 Belridge, CA Oil Fields Edward Burtynsky

56 Nigerian Gas Flare

57 The U.S. and Oil U.S. consumes > 20 million bbl/d U.S. consumes > 20 million bbl/d Produces 5 million bbl/d Produces 5 million bbl/d Strategic Petroleum Reserve holds more than 700 million bbl Strategic Petroleum Reserve holds more than 700 million bbl ANWR contains 4.3 – 11.8 billion bbl oil ANWR contains 4.3 – 11.8 billion bbl oil One year supply One year supply 23 billion bbl under remaining U.S. territory 23 billion bbl under remaining U.S. territory

58 Oil and War Countries that export oil are >40 times more likely to be engaged in civil war than those that do not Countries that export oil are >40 times more likely to be engaged in civil war than those that do not Gulf Wars I and II Gulf Wars I and II The Future? The Future?

59 Other Sources of Air Pollution Industry - #1 Industry - #1 Indoor combustion of coal and biomass (wood, charcoal, crop residues, and animal dung) for cooking, heating and food preservation Indoor combustion of coal and biomass (wood, charcoal, crop residues, and animal dung) for cooking, heating and food preservation Used by almost 3 billion people worldwide Used by almost 3 billion people worldwide Associated with multiple pulmonary conditions Associated with multiple pulmonary conditions Solar cookers may replace Solar cookers may replace

60 Noise Pollution Common in inner cities, hospital wards Common in inner cities, hospital wards Average sound level 72dB in hospital wards Average sound level 72dB in hospital wards WHO recommends no more than 35dB WHO recommends no more than 35dB Adverse health effects include increased risk of HTN, ischemic heart disease, delayed wound healing, aggressive behavior, need for psychiatric and pain medications, GERD symptoms, hearing loss in neonates, and increased rates of rehospitalization Adverse health effects include increased risk of HTN, ischemic heart disease, delayed wound healing, aggressive behavior, need for psychiatric and pain medications, GERD symptoms, hearing loss in neonates, and increased rates of rehospitalization

61 Garbage

62 Garbage 98% of the country’s total refuse is industrial waste; 2% municipal waste 98% of the country’s total refuse is industrial waste; 2% municipal waste Making 1 lb of sellable product generates avg. 32 lbs. of waste Making 1 lb of sellable product generates avg. 32 lbs. of waste

63 Garbage American produce 4.5 lbs/d garbage American produce 4.5 lbs/d garbage Almost 1650 lbs/yr Almost 1650 lbs/yr Only 1.5 lbs recycled Only 1.5 lbs recycled In a lifetime, the average American will throw away 6500 times his/her adult weight in garbage In a lifetime, the average American will throw away 6500 times his/her adult weight in garbage

64 U.S. Garbage Composition Paper and Paperboard - 34% Paper and Paperboard - 34% Yard Waste - 13% Yard Waste - 13% Food Waste - 12% Food Waste - 12% Plastics - 12% Plastics - 12% Metals - 8% Metals - 8% Glass - 6% Glass - 6% Wood - 5% Wood - 5%

65 U.S. Recycling Rates Tires - 22% Tires - 22% Plastic containers - 25% Plastic containers - 25% Overall plastics – 7% Overall plastics – 7% Glass containers - 28% Glass containers - 28% Yard waste - 41% Yard waste - 41% Paper and Paperboard - 55% Paper and Paperboard - 55% Aluminum packaging - 54% Aluminum packaging - 54% Steel cans - 60% Steel cans - 60% Auto batteries - 93% Auto batteries - 93%

66 Garbage One half of US has no curbside recycling pickup One half of US has no curbside recycling pickup Landfills Landfills Incinerators Incinerators Garbage Exports Garbage Exports

67 Toxins

68 Toxins 6 trillion tons of over 85,000 chemicals produced annually 6 trillion tons of over 85,000 chemicals produced annually 2000-3000 new chemicals registered each year 2000-3000 new chemicals registered each year More than 90% have never been screened for toxicity More than 90% have never been screened for toxicity Consequence of 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act Consequence of 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act

69 Toxic Pollutants The chemical industry is a $450 billion enterprise in the U.S. alone The chemical industry is a $450 billion enterprise in the U.S. alone Chemical manufacturers are not required to prove safety Chemical manufacturers are not required to prove safety The legal burden is on the government to prove that a product is dangerous The legal burden is on the government to prove that a product is dangerous

70 Pesticides 2.2 billion lbs/yr pesticides 2.2 billion lbs/yr pesticides Including agricultural pesticides, wood preservatives, and disinfectants Including agricultural pesticides, wood preservatives, and disinfectants 8.8 lbs/person/yr in US 8.8 lbs/person/yr in US

71 Pesticides CA and NY are the only states currently tracking pesticide sales and use CA and NY are the only states currently tracking pesticide sales and use 2008: USDA axes national survey charting pesticide use 2008: USDA axes national survey charting pesticide use EPA, NAS currently allows pesticide testing in humans, despite strong opposition EPA, NAS currently allows pesticide testing in humans, despite strong opposition Monsanto’s Roundup purchased by US government for aerial spraying in Colombia as part of “War on Drugs” Monsanto’s Roundup purchased by US government for aerial spraying in Colombia as part of “War on Drugs”

72 Pesticides EPA: U.S. farm workers suffer up to 300,000 pesticide-related acute illnesses and injuries per year EPA: U.S. farm workers suffer up to 300,000 pesticide-related acute illnesses and injuries per year NAS: Pesticides in food could cause up to 1 million cancers in the current generation of Americans NAS: Pesticides in food could cause up to 1 million cancers in the current generation of Americans

73 Pesticides WHO: 1,000,000 people killed by pesticides over the last 6 years WHO: 1,000,000 people killed by pesticides over the last 6 years US health and environmental costs $12 billion/yr (2005) US health and environmental costs $12 billion/yr (2005)

74 Pesticides Linked to autism, Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, obesity (with prenatal exposure), depression Linked to autism, Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, obesity (with prenatal exposure), depression Children living on or near farms score 5 points lower on IQ tests and other mental and verbal tests Children living on or near farms score 5 points lower on IQ tests and other mental and verbal tests May be due to pesticide exposure May be due to pesticide exposure

75 Anthropological Study of Children Exposed to Pesticides Children from villages practicing organic agriculture Children from villages practicing non-organic agriculture

76 Pesticides

77

78 Pesticides $2.4 billion worth of insecticides and fungicides sold to American farmers each year $2.4 billion worth of insecticides and fungicides sold to American farmers each year Pesticide runoff contributes to coastal dead zones Pesticide runoff contributes to coastal dead zones Baltic Sea, Mouth of Mississippi in Gulf of Mexico Baltic Sea, Mouth of Mississippi in Gulf of Mexico Red tides Red tides Pesticides inhibit nitrogen fixation, decrease crop yields Pesticides inhibit nitrogen fixation, decrease crop yields

79 Pesticides Evidence suggests that pesticides promote pests (vs. natural pesticides) Evidence suggests that pesticides promote pests (vs. natural pesticides) 30% of medieval crop harvests were destroyed by pests vs. 35-42% of current crop harvests 30% of medieval crop harvests were destroyed by pests vs. 35-42% of current crop harvests Implies organic farming more cost- effective Implies organic farming more cost- effective

80 Pesticides and Produce The Dirty Dozen: peaches, apples, bell peppers, celery, nectarines, strawberries, cherries, kale, lettuce, grapes (imported), carrots, pears The Dirty Dozen: peaches, apples, bell peppers, celery, nectarines, strawberries, cherries, kale, lettuce, grapes (imported), carrots, pears The Clean 15: onions, avocados, sweet corn, pineapples, mangos, asparagus, sweet peas, kiwis, cabbages, eggplant, papayas, watermelon, broccoli, tomatoes, sweet potatoes The Clean 15: onions, avocados, sweet corn, pineapples, mangos, asparagus, sweet peas, kiwis, cabbages, eggplant, papayas, watermelon, broccoli, tomatoes, sweet potatoes

81 Toxins Body burden of industrial chemicals, pollutants and pesticides high Body burden of industrial chemicals, pollutants and pesticides high Environmental Working Group (2004)found 287 pesticides, consumer product ingredients, and wastes from burning coal, gasoline, and garbage in umbilical cord blood Environmental Working Group (2004)found 287 pesticides, consumer product ingredients, and wastes from burning coal, gasoline, and garbage in umbilical cord blood Many other compounds not even tested; numbers undoubtedly higher Many other compounds not even tested; numbers undoubtedly higher

82 Toxins Fetuses and children most vulnerable Fetuses and children most vulnerable Birth defects, learning disabilities increasing Birth defects, learning disabilities increasing Toxins play important role Toxins play important role UK Food Standards Agency has called for a phase out of 8 artificial dyes linked to hyperactivity in children UK Food Standards Agency has called for a phase out of 8 artificial dyes linked to hyperactivity in children

83 Toxins and gender Sex ratio changing: Sex ratio changing: Normal = 105 boys/girls born (skewed by early male mortality) Normal = 105 boys/girls born (skewed by early male mortality) Fewer boys being born in industrialized countries Fewer boys being born in industrialized countries Other causes include obesity, older parental age, stress, fertility aides Other causes include obesity, older parental age, stress, fertility aides Situation far worse in Arctic Situation far worse in Arctic Cryptorchidism increasing Cryptorchidism increasing Risk factor for testicular cancer Risk factor for testicular cancer Micropenis, hypospadias increasing Micropenis, hypospadias increasing

84 Phthalates/Bisphenol A Found in construction materials, clothing, toys, cosmetics, pills, added to PVCs in IV tubing/other plastics Found in construction materials, clothing, toys, cosmetics, pills, added to PVCs in IV tubing/other plastics At least 47 million prescription meds At least 47 million prescription meds Exposure levels very high Exposure levels very high FDA approves FDA approves 5 million metric tons consumed by industry per year (13% in the U.S.) 5 million metric tons consumed by industry per year (13% in the U.S.) Exxon Mobil and BASF dominate the market Exxon Mobil and BASF dominate the market

85 Phthalates/Bisphenol A Wal-Mart, Target, Toys ‘R’ Us phasing out, San Francisco, California, Europe, and Canada have banned phthalates Wal-Mart, Target, Toys ‘R’ Us phasing out, San Francisco, California, Europe, and Canada have banned phthalates Consumer Product Safety Commission reforms of 2008 eliminate lead and phthalates from toys and children’s products Consumer Product Safety Commission reforms of 2008 eliminate lead and phthalates from toys and children’s products

86 Phthalates 90% of government-funded studies found adverse health effects 90% of government-funded studies found adverse health effects vs. 0% of industry-funded studies vs. 0% of industry-funded studies Associated with: Associated with: demasculinization and alterations in genitalia in male infants demasculinization and alterations in genitalia in male infants low birth weight low birth weight lower testosterone levels lower testosterone levels lower sperm counts in adults lower sperm counts in adults obesity obesity

87 Phthalates/PVCs and Medical Devices EPA regulations weak, based on 50-year old study EPA regulations weak, based on 50-year old study FDA has advised healthcare providers to use alternatives to DEHP-containing PVC medical devices, esp. in neonatal units FDA has advised healthcare providers to use alternatives to DEHP-containing PVC medical devices, esp. in neonatal units Banned by EU, CA, and WA Banned by EU, CA, and WA Federal legislation pending Federal legislation pending

88 Teflon (PFOA – perfluorooctanate) Non-stick material made by Dupont Non-stick material made by Dupont Chemicals released under high heat and when cookware damaged Chemicals released under high heat and when cookware damaged Exposure linked with cancer, birth defects, and liver damage Exposure linked with cancer, birth defects, and liver damage Dupont hit with largest-ever civil penalty ($10.25 million) in 2006 for concealing health consequences and transmission from mother to fetus Dupont hit with largest-ever civil penalty ($10.25 million) in 2006 for concealing health consequences and transmission from mother to fetus

89 Toxic Pollutants – Economic Costs Americans pay more than $55 billion annually for direct medical expenses plus special schooling and long-term care for pediatric diseases caused by lead Americans pay more than $55 billion annually for direct medical expenses plus special schooling and long-term care for pediatric diseases caused by lead This excludes the greatest toxic pollutant - tobacco This excludes the greatest toxic pollutant - tobacco

90 Lead Affects brain development, associated with lower IQ Affects brain development, associated with lower IQ No safe level for neurological development No safe level for neurological development Levels between 4 and 10 significantly increase risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease Levels between 4 and 10 significantly increase risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease Elevated levels associated with crime and violent behavior Elevated levels associated with crime and violent behavior Pre-natal and post-natal exposure Pre-natal and post-natal exposure

91 Lead Poor, African-Americans, and Hispanics more commonly exposed Poor, African-Americans, and Hispanics more commonly exposed Levels declining in US Levels declining in US Developing world at risk Developing world at risk Due to increased environmental exposure and, possibly, early umbilical cord clamping Due to increased environmental exposure and, possibly, early umbilical cord clamping

92 Leaded Gasoline Banned in Canada in 1990, US in 1996 (after 25- year phase-out period), EU in 2002, Africa in 2006 Banned in Canada in 1990, US in 1996 (after 25- year phase-out period), EU in 2002, Africa in 2006 Ban fought by industry for decades Ban fought by industry for decades Many countries still sell leaded gasoline: Many countries still sell leaded gasoline: Indonesia, Venezuela, North Korea, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, Syria, Yemen Indonesia, Venezuela, North Korea, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, Syria, Yemen

93 Mercury Released into air by coal combustion, industrial processes, mining, and waste disposal Released into air by coal combustion, industrial processes, mining, and waste disposal 4500 tons/yr 4500 tons/yr Travels throughout atmosphere and settles in oceans and waterways Travels throughout atmosphere and settles in oceans and waterways Bacteria convert it to toxic methyl-mercury Bacteria convert it to toxic methyl-mercury Travels up food chain via fish Travels up food chain via fish

94 Mercury 16% of women of childbearing age exceed the EPA’s “safe” mercury level 16% of women of childbearing age exceed the EPA’s “safe” mercury level Freshwater fish mercury levels too high for pregnant women to eat in 43 states Freshwater fish mercury levels too high for pregnant women to eat in 43 states Mercury dental amalgams pose health risks to pregnant women, unborn babies, and children (FDA) Mercury dental amalgams pose health risks to pregnant women, unborn babies, and children (FDA) Contaminant in high fructose corn syrup Contaminant in high fructose corn syrup

95 Mercury New EPA ruling ineffective: New EPA ruling ineffective: Allows cap-and-trade of power plant emissions Allows cap-and-trade of power plant emissions Removes power plants from list of pollution sources subject to federal Clean Air Act Removes power plants from list of pollution sources subject to federal Clean Air Act

96 Arsenic Contaminates groundwater in Bangladesh, also, India, China, Mexico, Argentina, Thailand, and parts of the U.S. Contaminates groundwater in Bangladesh, also, India, China, Mexico, Argentina, Thailand, and parts of the U.S. 13 million Americans have drinking water exceeding EPA’s “safe level” 13 million Americans have drinking water exceeding EPA’s “safe level” Exposure also via seafood Exposure also via seafood Used to pressure treat wood in US and elsewhere Used to pressure treat wood in US and elsewhere

97 Health Consequences of Arsenic Exposure Pigmentary skin changes Pigmentary skin changes Diabetes Diabetes Increased risk of lung, bladder, and skin cancers Increased risk of lung, bladder, and skin cancers Lead, mercury, or arsenic found in 1/5 of both U.S.- and India-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines purchased via the internet Lead, mercury, or arsenic found in 1/5 of both U.S.- and India-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines purchased via the internet

98 Manganese/Cadmuim Manganese: Manganese: Welders exposed via fumes Welders exposed via fumes Causes “manganism” (like Parkinson’s Disease) Causes “manganism” (like Parkinson’s Disease) Welding companies covered up link for decades (like lead paint, etc.) Welding companies covered up link for decades (like lead paint, etc.) Cadmium Cadmium Osteoporosis, periodontal disease Osteoporosis, periodontal disease

99 Cell phones ?Link to parotid gland tumors? ?Link to parotid gland tumors? ?Link to brain tumors? ?Link to brain tumors? Gliomas? Gliomas? Acoustic neuromas? Acoustic neuromas? Precautionary principle – hands-free headset Precautionary principle – hands-free headset ?Other safety benefits? ?Other safety benefits?

100 Toxic Pollutants 85,000 known or suspected hazardous waste sites in the U.S. 85,000 known or suspected hazardous waste sites in the U.S. Plus up to 600,000 lightly contaminated former industrial sites (“brownfields”) Plus up to 600,000 lightly contaminated former industrial sites (“brownfields”) Will cost hundreds of billions of dollars to mitigate environmental impacts Will cost hundreds of billions of dollars to mitigate environmental impacts

101 Toxic Pollutants 1 in 4 U.S. citizens lives within 4 mile of a Superfund site (over 1600 sites listed; another 2,500 sites eligible) 1 in 4 U.S. citizens lives within 4 mile of a Superfund site (over 1600 sites listed; another 2,500 sites eligible) ½ live within 10 miles ½ live within 10 miles Taxpayers paying increasing share of cleanup costs Taxpayers paying increasing share of cleanup costs Overall funding decreasing Overall funding decreasing

102 Environmental Racism and Toxic Imperialism Environmental Racism Environmental Racism Waste dumps/incinerators more common in lower SES neighborhoods Waste dumps/incinerators more common in lower SES neighborhoods “Cancer Belt” (Baton Rogue to New Orleans) “Cancer Belt” (Baton Rogue to New Orleans) More cardiovascular disease More cardiovascular disease Toxic Imperialism Toxic Imperialism

103 Toxic Pollutants: The Basel Convention The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes (designed to control dumping of hazardous wastes from the industrialized world in developing countries) The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes (designed to control dumping of hazardous wastes from the industrialized world in developing countries)

104 Toxic Pollutants: The Basel Convention Ratified by 170 countries Ratified by 170 countries Despite being the largest producer of toxic pollutants in the world, the U.S. has signed but not ratified this agreement Despite being the largest producer of toxic pollutants in the world, the U.S. has signed but not ratified this agreement

105 Bathtub, Toilet, and Source of Drinking Water

106 Persistent Organic Pollutants Toxic, remain in environment long- term, resist degradation, can travel long distances Toxic, remain in environment long- term, resist degradation, can travel long distances Bioaccumulate - higher concentrations as you move up the food chain Bioaccumulate - higher concentrations as you move up the food chain Most are endocrine disruptors Most are endocrine disruptors

107 Endocrine Disruptors Linked to: Linked to: Obesity Obesity Insulin resistance Insulin resistance Diabetes Diabetes PCOS, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, premature ovarian failure PCOS, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, premature ovarian failure Male and female reproductive tract abnormalities Male and female reproductive tract abnormalities

108 Endocrine Disruptors Linked to: Linked to: Impaired fertility Impaired fertility Low birth weight, impaired fetal development and fetal anomalies Low birth weight, impaired fetal development and fetal anomalies Multiple cancers (including breast, colon, prostate, testicular) Multiple cancers (including breast, colon, prostate, testicular) Thyroid disease Thyroid disease Neuroendocrine abnormalities Neuroendocrine abnormalities

109 Persistent Organic Pollutants UN Environmental Program organizing worldwide phaseout of top 12 through the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants UN Environmental Program organizing worldwide phaseout of top 12 through the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Including DDT, PCBs, and dioxins Including DDT, PCBs, and dioxins U.S. has signed, but not ratified U.S. has signed, but not ratified

110 Toxic Pollutants Floriculture Floriculture Diamond and Gold Mining Diamond and Gold Mining Cosmetics (see www.safecosmetics.org) Cosmetics (see www.safecosmetics.org) www.safecosmetics.org Nanoparticles Nanoparticles

111 Medical Waste The 6,000 US hospitals generate 2 million tons of waste per year; clinics and doctors’ offices an additional 700,000 tons The 6,000 US hospitals generate 2 million tons of waste per year; clinics and doctors’ offices an additional 700,000 tons 850,000 tons incinerated 850,000 tons incinerated 15% infectious waste 15% infectious waste incinerated pollutants include dioxin, mercury, cadmium and lead incinerated pollutants include dioxin, mercury, cadmium and lead

112 Medical Waste One hospital bed generates between 16 and 23 lbs/day of waste One hospital bed generates between 16 and 23 lbs/day of waste Outbreak of hepatitis B in India due to black market in medical waste and supplies (2009) Outbreak of hepatitis B in India due to black market in medical waste and supplies (2009)

113 Medical Waste Solutions: Solutions: Strengthen EPA regulations Strengthen EPA regulations Segregation and alternatives to incineration would cost < $1/patient/day 80% of thermometers no longer contain mercury Segregation and alternatives to incineration would cost < $1/patient/day 80% of thermometers no longer contain mercury Remove PVCs from medical supplies (e.g., IV tubing) Remove PVCs from medical supplies (e.g., IV tubing)

114 Medical Waste Organizations: Organizations: Health Care Without Harm Health Care Without Harm Green Health Center Movement Green Health Center Movement NAS: Hospitals built and operated on more environmentally sound principles save money and produce better patient outcomes NAS: Hospitals built and operated on more environmentally sound principles save money and produce better patient outcomes

115 Electronic Waste 600,000 tons of electronic appliances discarded each yearOnly 5-10% of computers recycled 600,000 tons of electronic appliances discarded each yearOnly 5-10% of computers recycled Most sent overseas Most sent overseas Some returns to U.S. in children’s jewelry Some returns to U.S. in children’s jewelry

116 Electronic Waste EU now requires electronics firms to recycle and to eliminate lead, cadmium and mercury from their products EU now requires electronics firms to recycle and to eliminate lead, cadmium and mercury from their products Maine passed first law requiring elctronic manufacturers to pay for recycling their discarded products Maine passed first law requiring elctronic manufacturers to pay for recycling their discarded products

117 Water UN adopted water as a human right in 2002 UN adopted water as a human right in 2002 International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights US has signed but not ratified US has signed but not ratified

118 Water Only 2.5% of the earth’s water is fresh Only 2.5% of the earth’s water is fresh 2/3 of this locked up in glaciers and ice caps 2/3 of this locked up in glaciers and ice caps As glaciers and polar ice caps melt, this is mixed with sea water As glaciers and polar ice caps melt, this is mixed with sea water

119 Water U.S. water consumption: 81% irrigation, 6% domestic use U.S. water consumption: 81% irrigation, 6% domestic use Worldwide freshwater supplies dwindling Worldwide freshwater supplies dwindling Drying up: Aral Sea, Great Lakes, etc. Drying up: Aral Sea, Great Lakes, etc.

120 Water Clean Water Act of 1972 has decreased pollution in the US Clean Water Act of 1972 has decreased pollution in the US But 80% of US waterways never receive any comprehensive testing for pollutants But 80% of US waterways never receive any comprehensive testing for pollutants

121 Water In developing countries, 90-95% of sewage and 70% of industrial wastes are dumped untreated into the local water supply In developing countries, 90-95% of sewage and 70% of industrial wastes are dumped untreated into the local water supply 13,000-15,000 deaths per day worldwide from water-related diseases 13,000-15,000 deaths per day worldwide from water-related diseases 4/10 people worldwide have no access to any latrine, toilet, bucket or box 4/10 people worldwide have no access to any latrine, toilet, bucket or box

122 Water Pollution and Plastics 120 billion lbs of plastics generated each year, using 4% of world oil supplies 120 billion lbs of plastics generated each year, using 4% of world oil supplies Every year more than 500 billion plastic bags discarded worldwide Every year more than 500 billion plastic bags discarded worldwide Bioplastics made from agricultural waste using renewable energy could be carbon neutral or even carbon negative Bioplastics made from agricultural waste using renewable energy could be carbon neutral or even carbon negative

123 Water Pollution and Plastics Texas-sized “great garbage patch” in North Pacific holds estimated 3 million metric tons of mostly plastic trash Texas-sized “great garbage patch” in North Pacific holds estimated 3 million metric tons of mostly plastic trash 6 times the mass of plankton there 6 times the mass of plankton there Most has degraded to microplastics, which bond with PCBs, DDT, and endocrine disruptors, making this area a million times more toxic than surrounding areas Most has degraded to microplastics, which bond with PCBs, DDT, and endocrine disruptors, making this area a million times more toxic than surrounding areas Harmful to marine life Harmful to marine life Works its way up food chain Works its way up food chain

124 Water Out of 191 nations in the world, 10 nations share 65% of the world’s annual water resources Out of 191 nations in the world, 10 nations share 65% of the world’s annual water resources A woman in a developing country walks an average of 6 km/day to obtain water A woman in a developing country walks an average of 6 km/day to obtain water

125 Water Privatization schemes supported by the World Bank and IMF lead to price increases, worsen poverty Privatization schemes supported by the World Bank and IMF lead to price increases, worsen poverty 5-10% of world’s water privatized - increasing 5-10% of world’s water privatized - increasing Privatization increases costs, incites social unrest (e.g., Cochabamba, Bolivia) Privatization increases costs, incites social unrest (e.g., Cochabamba, Bolivia) 15% of US water in private hands 15% of US water in private hands

126 Water Bottled water a $400 billion/yr profit- driven industry Bottled water a $400 billion/yr profit- driven industry Weaker standards, 1/3 is just tap water, dangers of plastics, energy costs/global warming, reduction of local water tables, recycling rate of plastic bottles only 25% Weaker standards, 1/3 is just tap water, dangers of plastics, energy costs/global warming, reduction of local water tables, recycling rate of plastic bottles only 25%

127 Water “Water is an efficient product.” It is a product which normally would be free, and it is our job to sell it.” “Water is an efficient product.” It is a product which normally would be free, and it is our job to sell it.” Suez CEO Gerard Mestrallet Suez CEO Gerard Mestrallet

128 Water Ratio of amount of water needed to produce 1 plastic bottle to amount of water in the bottle = 2:1 Ratio of amount of water needed to produce 1 plastic bottle to amount of water in the bottle = 2:1 San Francisco has banned city purchases of bottled water San Francisco has banned city purchases of bottled water Water expected to be the major cause of wars by 2050 or sooner Water expected to be the major cause of wars by 2050 or sooner

129 Water Pollution – Increased Beach Closings

130 Infamous Industrial Disasters Minimata, Japan, 1920s-1970s (Chisso Corporation) - methylmercury poisoning -400 dead; 10,000 injured Minimata, Japan, 1920s-1970s (Chisso Corporation) - methylmercury poisoning -400 dead; 10,000 injured Bhopal, India, 1984 (Union Carbide, purchased by Dow in 2001) - methyl isocyanate gas Bhopal, India, 1984 (Union Carbide, purchased by Dow in 2001) - methyl isocyanate gas 7000-10,000 dead within 3 days, 15,000-20,000 more over next 10 years; tens of thousands injured 7000-10,000 dead within 3 days, 15,000-20,000 more over next 10 years; tens of thousands injured Persistent water and soil contamination Persistent water and soil contamination Indian government extradition request for Warren Anderson Indian government extradition request for Warren Anderson

131 Minimata Disease W Eugene Smith

132 Infamous Industrial Disasters Chernobyl, USSR, 1986 - nuclear power plant explosion Chernobyl, USSR, 1986 - nuclear power plant explosion -25-100 dead, up to 1,000 injured acutely, NCI estimates 10-75K thyroid cancers -Higher risk of childhood leukemia among those living near nuclear power plants

133 Infamous Industrial Disasters Alaska, Exxon Valdez, 1989 - oil spill -wildlife devastated, $5 billion damage Alaska, Exxon Valdez, 1989 - oil spill -wildlife devastated, $5 billion damage Punitive damages overturned by U.S. Supreme Court Punitive damages overturned by U.S. Supreme Court 2006 BP Alaskan pipeline ruptures 2006 BP Alaskan pipeline ruptures

134 Oil and Water 1.3 million metric tons of oil enters oceans each year 1.3 million metric tons of oil enters oceans each year 46% seepage from natural deposits 46% seepage from natural deposits 8% tanker spills 8% tanker spills Exxon Valdez 38,800 metric tons Exxon Valdez 38,800 metric tons ABT Summer disaster off southwest coast of Africa (1991) – 260,000 metric tons ABT Summer disaster off southwest coast of Africa (1991) – 260,000 metric tons Remainder = industry, runoff Remainder = industry, runoff UN phase-out of single-hulled tankers begins 2010 UN phase-out of single-hulled tankers begins 2010

135 Oil Pollution is Expensive to Clean Up

136 Oil Slicks Kill Marine Life

137 Infamous Industrial Disasters Love Canal: Love Canal: Hooker Electrochemical Company (parent company Occidental Petroleum) dumps over 21,000 tons of chemical waste in 1940s and 1950s Hooker Electrochemical Company (parent company Occidental Petroleum) dumps over 21,000 tons of chemical waste in 1940s and 1950s Miscarriages, birth defects, cancers Miscarriages, birth defects, cancers Occidental found liable Occidental found liable

138 Infamous Industrial Disasters Leads to Superfund Law Leads to Superfund Law Today only seven states prohibit construction of schools on or near hazardous waste sites Today only seven states prohibit construction of schools on or near hazardous waste sites Half-million children attend schools within ½ mile of toxic waste dumps in NY, NJ, MA< and MI alone Half-million children attend schools within ½ mile of toxic waste dumps in NY, NJ, MA< and MI alone

139 Deforestation Tropical forests constitute 7% of land surface area, contain > 50% of plant and animal species Tropical forests constitute 7% of land surface area, contain > 50% of plant and animal species Majority of tropical forests destroyed Majority of tropical forests destroyed One acre of world’s forest cut down every second One acre of world’s forest cut down every second 50% of global wetlands destroyed (54% in U.S.) 50% of global wetlands destroyed (54% in U.S.) 100,000 acres lost per year in U.S. 100,000 acres lost per year in U.S.

140 Deforestation Historical -Easter Island (Polynesians), Middle East, U.S. Southwest (Anasazi Indians) Historical -Easter Island (Polynesians), Middle East, U.S. Southwest (Anasazi Indians) Contemporary -Mauritania, Ethiopia, Haiti deforested -Philippines and Thailand are now net importers of forest products, looking at Latin America Contemporary -Mauritania, Ethiopia, Haiti deforested -Philippines and Thailand are now net importers of forest products, looking at Latin America Next? -Indonesia, Burma, Papua New Guinea, Russian Far East, Amazon, B.C., Alaska, many others Next? -Indonesia, Burma, Papua New Guinea, Russian Far East, Amazon, B.C., Alaska, many others

141 Deforestation: Causes New agricultural settlements (overpopulation, poverty, unsustainable farming practices) New agricultural settlements (overpopulation, poverty, unsustainable farming practices) Logging Logging Oil and gas exploration Oil and gas exploration Drilling in ANWR would drop gas prices 4 cents per gallon, after a 15 year waiting period, and assuming companies sell oil to U.S. consumers Drilling in ANWR would drop gas prices 4 cents per gallon, after a 15 year waiting period, and assuming companies sell oil to U.S. consumers Cattle ranching Cattle ranching Drug cultivation -Peru, Bolivia, Columbia Drug cultivation -Peru, Bolivia, Columbia

142

143 Clearcutting

144 Clearcutting

145 Clearcutting with Corridors

146

147 Global Warming

148 Greenhouse effect Greenhouse effect 30% increase in atmosphere CO2 since industrialization began (6.25 billion tons/year) 30% increase in atmosphere CO2 since industrialization began (6.25 billion tons/year) Fossil Fuels (CO2) Fossil Fuels (CO2) Methane, choloroflurocarbons, nitrous oxide, sulfur oxides Methane, choloroflurocarbons, nitrous oxide, sulfur oxides Methane 25 times more heat than CO2, large amounts stored in permafrost Methane 25 times more heat than CO2, large amounts stored in permafrost Obesity Obesity

149 Global Warming The last 20 years have been the hottest ever recorded (data go back to 1856) The last 20 years have been the hottest ever recorded (data go back to 1856) 2007 hottest year on record 2007 hottest year on record Average global surface temperature = 58.3° Average global surface temperature = 58.3° Hottest temperature in last 10,000 years Hottest temperature in last 10,000 years Far North, Pacific Northwest warming up faster than other parts of the planet Far North, Pacific Northwest warming up faster than other parts of the planet

150 Consequences of Global Warming 160,000 deaths and 5.5 million disability- adjusted life years lost per year 160,000 deaths and 5.5 million disability- adjusted life years lost per year WHO, UN Environment Program WHO, UN Environment Program Expected to double by 2020 Expected to double by 2020 ↑ weather extremes/natural disasters/insurance claims ↑ weather extremes/natural disasters/insurance claims $200 billion in 2008 $200 billion in 2008 Floods, cholera, rising malaria zone Floods, cholera, rising malaria zone

151 Weather Extremes Headline from “The Onion” Hurriphoonado Cuts Swath Of Destruction Across Eastern, Western Hemispheres

152 Consequences of Global Warming Polar icecaps/glaciers/Greenland ice sheet/Himalayas/permafrost melting, sea levels rising Polar icecaps/glaciers/Greenland ice sheet/Himalayas/permafrost melting, sea levels rising Artic ice pack has lost 40% of its thickness compared with 1960 Artic ice pack has lost 40% of its thickness compared with 1960 Glacier National Park’s glaciers melting Glacier National Park’s glaciers melting Snows of Kilimanjaro down 85% compared to 1912; will be gone by 2015 Snows of Kilimanjaro down 85% compared to 1912; will be gone by 2015

153 Glaciers Calving

154 Polar Bears Stranded / Dying Off

155 Greenland’s Ice Cap Melting: 1992

156 Greenland’s Ice Cap Melting: 2002

157 Greenland’s Ice Cap Melting: 2005

158 Consequences of Global Warming Increased allergies/asthma/anaphylaxis Increased allergies/asthma/anaphylaxis Rising temperatures increase smog/ground level ozone Rising temperatures increase smog/ground level ozone Ozone stunts plant growth Ozone stunts plant growth Higher levels of CO2 favor growth of ragweed and other pollen-producing plants Higher levels of CO2 favor growth of ragweed and other pollen-producing plants

159 Global Warming The top 1/5 of the world’s largest 145 countries account for 63% of global C0 2 emissions (lowest 1/5 = 2%) The top 1/5 of the world’s largest 145 countries account for 63% of global C0 2 emissions (lowest 1/5 = 2%) The countries likely to be most affected by global warming are those least responsible for the increases in global temperature The countries likely to be most affected by global warming are those least responsible for the increases in global temperature

160 Global Warming Increases Droughts

161 Agriculture Global per capita cropland down over 50% from 1961 to 0.6% acre Global per capita cropland down over 50% from 1961 to 0.6% acre Soil erosion exceeds soil formation Soil erosion exceeds soil formation In the past 40 years, 1/3 of U.S. topsoil has eroded In the past 40 years, 1/3 of U.S. topsoil has eroded Takes 1,000 years to “grow” 1 inch of soil Takes 1,000 years to “grow” 1 inch of soil

162 Agriculture Livestock responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than the entire transportation sector Livestock responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than the entire transportation sector Methane, CO2, and NO Methane, CO2, and NO Grass-fed cattle healthier, produce less methane, contain less saturated fat Grass-fed cattle healthier, produce less methane, contain less saturated fat

163 Agriculture Water use has tripled since 1950, up 6-fold over 20 th Century Water use has tripled since 1950, up 6-fold over 20 th Century 70% of freshwater use in agriculture 70% of freshwater use in agriculture Large scale irrigation projects (e.g., China’s Three Gorges Dam) Large scale irrigation projects (e.g., China’s Three Gorges Dam)

164 China’s Three Gorges Dam

165 Wasted Food Household food waste adds up to $43 billion/yr in the U.S. Household food waste adds up to $43 billion/yr in the U.S. An average American family of four tosses out $590/yr food An average American family of four tosses out $590/yr food Americans discarded 3 times as much food in 2005 as in 1985 Americans discarded 3 times as much food in 2005 as in 1985

166 Decreasing crop diversity 75,000 plant species are edible 75,000 plant species are edible Humans have utilized 7000 plant species for food Humans have utilized 7000 plant species for food 20% of species provide 80% of the world’s food 20% of species provide 80% of the world’s food Consequences: decreasing genetic diversity, vulnerability to disease, huge crop losses (e.g., Irish potato famine) Consequences: decreasing genetic diversity, vulnerability to disease, huge crop losses (e.g., Irish potato famine)

167 Factory Farming Factory farms have replaced industrial factories as the # 1 polluters of American waterways Factory farms have replaced industrial factories as the # 1 polluters of American waterways 1.4 billion tons animal waste generated/yr 1.4 billion tons animal waste generated/yr 130 x human waste 130 x human waste 1 hog farm in NC generates as much sewage annualy as all of Manhattan 1 hog farm in NC generates as much sewage annualy as all of Manhattan

168 Factory Farming

169

170 Factory Farm Waste Most untreated Most untreated Ferments in open pools Ferments in open pools Seeps into local water supply, estuaries Seeps into local water supply, estuaries Kills fish Kills fish Causes human infections - e.g., Pfisteria pescii, Chesapeake Bay Causes human infections - e.g., Pfisteria pescii, Chesapeake Bay Creates unbearable stench Creates unbearable stench Widely disseminated by floods/hurricanes Widely disseminated by floods/hurricanes

171 Agricultural Antibiotic Use Agriculture accounts for 70% of U.S. antibiotic use Agriculture accounts for 70% of U.S. antibiotic use Use up 50% over the last 15 years Use up 50% over the last 15 years

172 Antibiotic Resistant Pathogens CDC: “Antibiotic use in food animals is the dominant source of antibiotic resistance among food-borne pathogens.” CDC: “Antibiotic use in food animals is the dominant source of antibiotic resistance among food-borne pathogens.” $4billion/yr to treat antibiotic-resistant infections in humans $4billion/yr to treat antibiotic-resistant infections in humans Campylobacter fluoroquinolone resistance Campylobacter fluoroquinolone resistance VREF (poss. due to avoparcin use in chickens) VREF (poss. due to avoparcin use in chickens)

173 Alternatives to Agricultural Antibiotic Use Decrease overcrowding Decrease overcrowding Better diet/sanitation/living conditions Better diet/sanitation/living conditions Control heat stress Control heat stress Vaccination Vaccination Increased use of bacterial cultures and specific antibiotic treatment in animals when indicated Increased use of bacterial cultures and specific antibiotic treatment in animals when indicated

174 Ending Agricultural Antibiotic Use EU bans use of all antibiotic growth promoters effective 1/1/06 EU bans use of all antibiotic growth promoters effective 1/1/06 Three years after a Danish ban on routine use of antibiotics in chicken farming, the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in chickens dropped from 82% to 12% Three years after a Danish ban on routine use of antibiotics in chicken farming, the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in chickens dropped from 82% to 12% US Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act, 2007 – awaiting vote US Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act, 2007 – awaiting vote

175 Overfishing Fisheries collapsing: Fisheries collapsing: Newfoundland cod Newfoundland cod West Coast salmon West Coast salmon 1/3 of fish species threatened with extinction 1/3 of fish species threatened with extinction 90% drop in # of largest predatory ocean fish since 1950 90% drop in # of largest predatory ocean fish since 1950 Global fisheries collapse predicted by 2048 unless practices change Global fisheries collapse predicted by 2048 unless practices change

176 Harmful Fishing Practices Long-lining, bottom trawlers, drift nets Long-lining, bottom trawlers, drift nets Tear up seafloor, damage corals Tear up seafloor, damage corals Large amounts of bycatch discarded Large amounts of bycatch discarded Up to 20 lbs per lb of desired catch Up to 20 lbs per lb of desired catch Cyanide fishing (400 kg/year) Cyanide fishing (400 kg/year) Dynamite Reef fishing Dynamite Reef fishing

177 Factory Trawlers

178 Dynamite Reef Fishing

179 The Military Harms Fish Environmental destruction Environmental destruction Navy sonar harming/killing off whales Navy sonar harming/killing off whales Japanese/Norwegian whaling compounds problem Japanese/Norwegian whaling compounds problem Dolphins as mine detectors (in Vietnam and Iraq) Dolphins as mine detectors (in Vietnam and Iraq) Weaponizing sharks, dolphins, etc. (DARPA) Weaponizing sharks, dolphins, etc. (DARPA)

180 Coral Reefs Generate $30 billion/yr globally in fishing, tourism, and protection from storm surges Generate $30 billion/yr globally in fishing, tourism, and protection from storm surges Reefs make up 1% of ocean floor, support ¼ of all marine life Reefs make up 1% of ocean floor, support ¼ of all marine life

181 Coral Reefs Threatened by bleaching due to rising ocean temperature, acidification from increased CO2, runoffs from deforestation, pesticides Threatened by bleaching due to rising ocean temperature, acidification from increased CO2, runoffs from deforestation, pesticides pH of oceans down 0.1 from preindustrial times to 8 pH of oceans down 0.1 from preindustrial times to 8 With current trends, pH will be 7.7 by 2100 With current trends, pH will be 7.7 by 2100 At pH 7.8, shell formation ceases At pH 7.8, shell formation ceases

182 Coral Reefs 10% of world’s reefs ruined (90% in Philippines), 30% in critical condition 10% of world’s reefs ruined (90% in Philippines), 30% in critical condition Jellyfish populations burgeoning (“cockroaches of the sea”) Jellyfish populations burgeoning (“cockroaches of the sea”) Americans purchase 350,000 pieces of live coral broken off from reefs per year Americans purchase 350,000 pieces of live coral broken off from reefs per year vs. 90,000 for the rest of the world vs. 90,000 for the rest of the world

183 Aquaculture 27-33% of fish now consumed is farmed (vs. 4% in 1970) 27-33% of fish now consumed is farmed (vs. 4% in 1970) Almost all catfish and trout Almost all catfish and trout 1/2 of shrimp 1/2 of shrimp 1/3 of salmon 1/3 of salmon

184 Consequences of Aquaculture No compensation to general public for potentially exclusionary use of public services for private profit No compensation to general public for potentially exclusionary use of public services for private profit Feed inefficiency (2-6 lbs of wild fish to raise 1 lb farmed fish) Feed inefficiency (2-6 lbs of wild fish to raise 1 lb farmed fish) Decreased diversity Decreased diversity Escapes, interbreeding with (and lowering fitness of) wild stocks Escapes, interbreeding with (and lowering fitness of) wild stocks

185 Consequences of Aquaculture Antibiotics (incl. chloramphenicol), hormones, dyes, herbicides, pesticides, algicides → increased pollution and sewage Antibiotics (incl. chloramphenicol), hormones, dyes, herbicides, pesticides, algicides → increased pollution and sewage Damage to local estuaries, birds of prey Damage to local estuaries, birds of prey Disease Disease

186 Aquaculture Good seafood (clean water): Good seafood (clean water): Clams Clams Mussels Mussels Oysters Oysters scallops scallops Bad seafood Bad seafood Farmed salmon contains 10X as much PCBs as wild salmon Farmed salmon contains 10X as much PCBs as wild salmon

187 Maldistribution of Wealth 500 billionaires worldwide 500 billionaires worldwide top 250 billionaires worth $1 trillion, the combined income of bottom 2.5 billion people (45% of world’s population) top 250 billionaires worth $1 trillion, the combined income of bottom 2.5 billion people (45% of world’s population)

188 Maldistribution of Wealth U.S: Richest 1% of the population owns 50% of the country’s wealth -poorest 90% own 30% -widest gap of any industrialized nation U.S: Richest 1% of the population owns 50% of the country’s wealth -poorest 90% own 30% -widest gap of any industrialized nation

189 The Stock Market 20% of Americans own stock; 90% of stock owned by 10% (50% by 1%) 20% of Americans own stock; 90% of stock owned by 10% (50% by 1%) “Business” news “Business” news As a group, U.S. Senators beat the market by an average of 12% from 1993-98 (study published 2004) As a group, U.S. Senators beat the market by an average of 12% from 1993-98 (study published 2004) The best fund managers average 3% The best fund managers average 3%

190 Maldistribution of wealth The worldwide gap between rich and poor doubled between 1960 and 1990, and grew an additional 20% between 1990 and 1998 The worldwide gap between rich and poor doubled between 1960 and 1990, and grew an additional 20% between 1990 and 1998 This gap is higher in the U.S. than in any other industrialized nation This gap is higher in the U.S. than in any other industrialized nation

191 Maldistribution of wealth Less than 4% of the combined wealth of the 225 richest individuals in the world would pay for ongoing access to basic education, health care (including reproductive health care), adequate food, safe water, and adequate sanitation for all humans (UNDP) Less than 4% of the combined wealth of the 225 richest individuals in the world would pay for ongoing access to basic education, health care (including reproductive health care), adequate food, safe water, and adequate sanitation for all humans (UNDP)

192 George Orwell “Some people are more equal than others”

193 Hudson River, 2009

194 Maldistribution of Wealth/Resources Threatens National Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy “The U.S. has about 50% of the world’s wealth, but only 6.3% of its population. This situation cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity withoug positive detriment to our national security.” “The U.S. has about 50% of the world’s wealth, but only 6.3% of its population. This situation cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity withoug positive detriment to our national security.” George Kennan, U.S. State Dept. Policy Planning Study, 1948 George Kennan, U.S. State Dept. Policy Planning Study, 1948

195 Voltaire “The comfort of the rich rests upon an abundance of the poor”

196 Primo Levi “A country is considered the more civilized the more the wisdom and efficiency of its laws hinder a weak man from becoming too weak or a powerful one too powerful.”

197 Racial Disparities: Economic Income disparities Income disparities Median income of black U.S. families as a percent of white U.S. families = 60% in in 1968; 58% in 2002 Median income of black U.S. families as a percent of white U.S. families = 60% in in 1968; 58% in 2002 Educational disparities Educational disparities Higher levels of unemployment Higher levels of unemployment

198 Racial Disparities: Economic Criminal justice system involvement Criminal justice system involvement Toxic waste sitings / environmental injustice / environmental racism Toxic waste sitings / environmental injustice / environmental racism Persistent overt / subtle discrimination Persistent overt / subtle discrimination E.g., “driving while black” E.g., “driving while black”

199 Racial Disparities: Health Care Higher maternal and infant mortality Higher maternal and infant mortality Higher death rates for most diseases Higher death rates for most diseases Shorter life expectancies Shorter life expectancies Less health insurance Less health insurance Fewer diagnostic tests / therapeutic procedures Fewer diagnostic tests / therapeutic procedures

200 Income Inequality Kills Higher income inequality is associated with increased mortality at all per capita income levels Higher income inequality is associated with increased mortality at all per capita income levels Equalizing the mortality rates of whites and African-Americans would have averted 686,202 deaths between 1991 and 2000 Equalizing the mortality rates of whites and African-Americans would have averted 686,202 deaths between 1991 and 2000 Whereas medical advances averted 176,633 deaths Whereas medical advances averted 176,633 deaths AJPH 2004;94:2078-2081 AJPH 2004;94:2078-2081

201 Overconsumption (Affluenza) U.S. = 6.3% of world’s population U.S. = 6.3% of world’s population Own 50% of the world’s wealth Own 50% of the world’s wealth U.S. responsible for: -25% of world’s energy consumption -33% of paper use -72% of hazardous waste production (1 ton/person/year) U.S. responsible for: -25% of world’s energy consumption -33% of paper use -72% of hazardous waste production (1 ton/person/year)

202

203

204 But are we happier? Workloads increasing, vacation and free time decreasing Workloads increasing, vacation and free time decreasing Average American wastes 62 hrs/yr sitting in rush hour traffic Average American wastes 62 hrs/yr sitting in rush hour traffic Average American working 200 more hrs/yr than in 1960 (#1 in world) Average American working 200 more hrs/yr than in 1960 (#1 in world) 8/10 Americans want a new job (CNNMoney.com, 11/03) 8/10 Americans want a new job (CNNMoney.com, 11/03) Stress up / satisfaction with life down Stress up / satisfaction with life down

205 Erosion of social capital Erosion of social capital is strongest where maldistribution of wealth is largest Erosion of social capital is strongest where maldistribution of wealth is largest Americans have an average of 2 close friends today Americans have an average of 2 close friends today Down from 3 in 1985 Down from 3 in 1985

206 Erosion of social capital 1 in 4 Americans say they have no one with whom they can discuss important matters 1 in 4 Americans say they have no one with whom they can discuss important matters Includes nuclear family Includes nuclear family Was 1 in 8 in 1985 Was 1 in 8 in 1985 “Most people can be trusted” “Most people can be trusted” 1960: agree = 58% 1960: agree = 58% 1994: agree = 37% 1994: agree = 37%

207 Maldistribution of Wealth In countries with moderate levels of wealth, happiness is highest where income inequalities lowest In countries with moderate levels of wealth, happiness is highest where income inequalities lowest Major League Baseball: teams are more successful when players’ salaries are more equitably distributed Major League Baseball: teams are more successful when players’ salaries are more equitably distributed

208 The Booming Economy Inflation-adjusted net worth of the median U.S. household Inflation-adjusted net worth of the median U.S. household 1989 - $54,600 1989 - $54,600 1997 - $49,000 1997 - $49,000 2004 - $44,389 2004 - $44,389

209 The Booming Economy Weekly wages for the avg. American worker are 12% below what they were in 1973 Weekly wages for the avg. American worker are 12% below what they were in 1973 But productivity is up 33% But productivity is up 33% $1.5 trillion needed to repair nation’s infrastructure $1.5 trillion needed to repair nation’s infrastructure

210 Vacation Time Down Americans work more than any other country: 1970 hrs/yr Americans work more than any other country: 1970 hrs/yr Canada (#2): 1800 hrs/yr Canada (#2): 1800 hrs/yr Industrialized EU countries: 1600-1800 hrs/yr Industrialized EU countries: 1600-1800 hrs/yr Americans take less than 9/12 days of allotted leave per year Americans take less than 9/12 days of allotted leave per year Japanese alloted 18, Canadians 20, Germans 27, French 39 Japanese alloted 18, Canadians 20, Germans 27, French 39 Many advocate 30 hour workweek Many advocate 30 hour workweek

211 Minimum Wage ≠ Living Wage Federal minimum wage = $5.15/hr (no change over last 8 years) Federal minimum wage = $5.15/hr (no change over last 8 years) Oregon = $8.40/hr (2009) Oregon = $8.40/hr (2009) $10,300/yr for full-time job $10,300/yr for full-time job Real value down 42% compared with 1968 Real value down 42% compared with 1968 Inadequate to pay rent, buy food and clothing Inadequate to pay rent, buy food and clothing 3 million homeless (13-17% of homeless adults work) 3 million homeless (13-17% of homeless adults work)

212 Food Stamp Program Covers 26 million Americans Covers 26 million Americans 35 million Americans (1/3 of them children) live in household that cannot consistently afford food) 35 million Americans (1/3 of them children) live in household that cannot consistently afford food) $1.05/person/meal $1.05/person/meal 5-year residency requirement for adult legal immigrants 5-year residency requirement for adult legal immigrants Undocumented immigrants not eligible Undocumented immigrants not eligible Inadequate signup rates Inadequate signup rates

213 Minimum Wage ≠ Living Wage ¼ of US jobs pay less than a poverty-level income ¼ of US jobs pay less than a poverty-level income In 4 of the last 5 years, Congress granted itself a $5,000 cost of living salary increase In 4 of the last 5 years, Congress granted itself a $5,000 cost of living salary increase

214 Exorbitant CEO Pay CEO salaries up 500% since 1980 CEO salaries up 500% since 1980 The average CEO makes 350-400X the salary of the average U.S. worker (1960 - 41X; 1980 - 42X) The average CEO makes 350-400X the salary of the average U.S. worker (1960 - 41X; 1980 - 42X) Mexico 45:1 Mexico 45:1 Britain 25:1 Britain 25:1 Germany 11:1 Germany 11:1 Japan 10:1 Japan 10:1

215 U.S. Debt US national debt $9.4 trillion in 2008 US national debt $9.4 trillion in 2008 Over $30,000 for every US citizen Over $30,000 for every US citizen Personal savings down Personal savings down Annual bankruptcies up 40% between 2007 and 2008 Annual bankruptcies up 40% between 2007 and 2008

216 U.S. Debt Average household debt (for mortgages, car loans, credit cards and all other debt combined) = $112,043 in 2007 Average household debt (for mortgages, car loans, credit cards and all other debt combined) = $112,043 in 2007 Debt exacerbated by Debt exacerbated by Predatory lending practices, sub-prime mortgage collapse Predatory lending practices, sub-prime mortgage collapse Payday loans (22,000 stores, serving 10 million people/yr, $40 billion/yr business) Payday loans (22,000 stores, serving 10 million people/yr, $40 billion/yr business) Rent-to-own companies Rent-to-own companies

217 Total Credit Card Debt Up 1990 - $243 billion 1997 - $560 billion 2002 - $1.5 trillion 2005 - $800 billion 2009 - $951 billion Average number of credit cards per U.S. household = 12.7

218 Bankruptcies 1.1 million bankruptcies in 2008 1.1 million bankruptcies in 2008 Over 60% of bankruptcies due to health care expenses (and ¾ of these individuals were insured) Over 60% of bankruptcies due to health care expenses (and ¾ of these individuals were insured) exceed # of college graduates/year, # of persons diagnosed with cancer per year exceed # of college graduates/year, # of persons diagnosed with cancer per year Bankruptcy “reform” bill grossly unfair Bankruptcy “reform” bill grossly unfair

219 Pensions Pensions in jeopardy Pensions in jeopardy Shift from Defined Benefit Plans to Defined Contribution Plans Shift from Defined Benefit Plans to Defined Contribution Plans Reductions in / elimination of employer contributions Reductions in / elimination of employer contributions

220 The “Global Economy” 53 of the world’s 100 largest economies are private corporations; 47 are countries 53 of the world’s 100 largest economies are private corporations; 47 are countries GM was, until recently, larger than Denmark, Thailand, Hong Kong, and Turkey GM was, until recently, larger than Denmark, Thailand, Hong Kong, and Turkey Wal-Mart is larger than Israel and Greece Wal-Mart is larger than Israel and Greece AT&T is larger than Malaysia and Ireland AT&T is larger than Malaysia and Ireland

221 The “Global Economy” Until 2007, the combined revenues of GM and Ford exceed the combined GDP of all sub-Saharan Africa Until 2007, the combined revenues of GM and Ford exceed the combined GDP of all sub-Saharan Africa Combined sales of the top 6 Japanese companies are nearly equivalent to the combined GDP of all of South America Combined sales of the top 6 Japanese companies are nearly equivalent to the combined GDP of all of South America

222 Corporations Almost 6 million corporations Almost 6 million corporations ¼ non-profits ¼ non-profits 500 companies control 70% of world trade 500 companies control 70% of world trade

223

224 Corporations “The [only] social responsibility of business is to increase its profits.” - Milton Friedman

225 Corporations “Corporations [have] no moral conscience. [They] are designed by law, to be concerned only for their stockholders, and not, say, what are sometimes called their stakeholders, like the community or the work force…” “Corporations [have] no moral conscience. [They] are designed by law, to be concerned only for their stockholders, and not, say, what are sometimes called their stakeholders, like the community or the work force…” -Noam Chomsky

226 Corporations Internalize profits Internalize profits Externalize health and environmental costs Externalize health and environmental costs

227 Corporate Taxation Nearly 1/3 of all large corporations (assets > $250 million or annual sales > $50 million) pay no annual income tax Nearly 1/3 of all large corporations (assets > $250 million or annual sales > $50 million) pay no annual income tax

228 Corporate Taxation Corporations shouldered over 30% of the nation’s tax burden in 1950 vs. 8% today Corporations shouldered over 30% of the nation’s tax burden in 1950 vs. 8% today Corporate taxes are at their lowest level since WW II Corporate taxes are at their lowest level since WW II

229 Reasons for Inadequate Corporate Taxation Tax breaks, corporate welfare, corporation-friendly tax laws, loopholes, transferring assets overseas Tax breaks, corporate welfare, corporation-friendly tax laws, loopholes, transferring assets overseas Cheating and under-payment common Cheating and under-payment common 1/3 high school students admits to stealing something from a store in the past year 1/3 high school students admits to stealing something from a store in the past year

230 Reasons for Inadequate Corporate Taxation Offshore tax havens shelter capital Offshore tax havens shelter capital Estimated 1/3 of global assets Estimated 1/3 of global assets $11.5 trillion in individual wealth alone $11.5 trillion in individual wealth alone 83 of the largest 100 US companies have subsidiaries in tax havens 83 of the largest 100 US companies have subsidiaries in tax havens Lost annual tax revenue: Lost annual tax revenue: $250 billion worldwide $250 billion worldwide $100 billion in US $100 billion in US

231 Corporate Crime Each year in America, we lose; Each year in America, we lose; $3.8 billion to burglary and robbery $3.8 billion to burglary and robbery $100-$400 billion to health care fraud; $40 billion to auto repair fraud, $15 billion to securities fraud, etc.; the S and L fraud cost between $300 billion and $500 billion $100-$400 billion to health care fraud; $40 billion to auto repair fraud, $15 billion to securities fraud, etc.; the S and L fraud cost between $300 billion and $500 billion Fines meager, often considered a cost of doing business Fines meager, often considered a cost of doing business Corporate crime under-prosecuted, prosecutors under-funded Corporate crime under-prosecuted, prosecutors under-funded

232 Corporate Crime 25% decrease in federal prosecutions of white collar crime, including corporate crime, since 1999 25% decrease in federal prosecutions of white collar crime, including corporate crime, since 1999 Increase in non-prosecution and deferred-prosecution agreements Increase in non-prosecution and deferred-prosecution agreements 1,288 whistleblower lawsuits 2002-8; government ruled for whistleblower in only 17 1,288 whistleblower lawsuits 2002-8; government ruled for whistleblower in only 17 3/5 U.S. companies settling corporate crime cases illegally deduct some or all of the settlement to the IRS 3/5 U.S. companies settling corporate crime cases illegally deduct some or all of the settlement to the IRS

233 Unemployment 9-12% unemployment rate 9-12% unemployment rate True percentage likely higher True percentage likely higher Only 1/3 of the unemployed are eligible for unemployment insurance Only 1/3 of the unemployed are eligible for unemployment insurance Women slightly more likely to be unemployed than men Women slightly more likely to be unemployed than men Black women 2X white women Black women 2X white women Under-employment rate approximately 10% Under-employment rate approximately 10%

234 The Rise of the Permatemp Temporary agency workers Temporary agency workers 1989 - 1.2 million 1989 - 1.2 million 1998 2.8 million 1998 2.8 million 2006 - est. 4.0 million 2006 - est. 4.0 million Results: job insecurity, fewer benefits, no retirement savings, more uninsured, etc. Results: job insecurity, fewer benefits, no retirement savings, more uninsured, etc.

235 Job Loss and The Decline of Labor 12 million quality jobs lost in the U.S. between 1980 and 2005 12 million quality jobs lost in the U.S. between 1980 and 2005 Free trade Free trade Expatriation of jobs Expatriation of jobs 40% of US jobs part-time or seasonal 40% of US jobs part-time or seasonal

236 Job Loss and The Decline of Labor Labor union membership declining since 1950 Labor union membership declining since 1950 Now 12%: Now 12%: 8% in private sector 8% in private sector 37% in public sector 37% in public sector Employers generally anti-union Employers generally anti-union Unionized workers earn more, have better health benefits, safer working conditions, retirement and disability portfolios Unionized workers earn more, have better health benefits, safer working conditions, retirement and disability portfolios

237 Overseas Labor Markets Currently made overseas: Currently made overseas: 83% of all garments sold in the U.S. 83% of all garments sold in the U.S. 90% of sporting goods 90% of sporting goods 93% of shoes 93% of shoes Overseas factories often lack adequate occupational health and safety / pollution controls (e.g., maquiladoras) Overseas factories often lack adequate occupational health and safety / pollution controls (e.g., maquiladoras)

238 Worker Health and Safety ILO: 2.2 million die of work-related injuries and diseases worldwide each year ILO: 2.2 million die of work-related injuries and diseases worldwide each year Considered vast underestimate, due to poor reporting in many developing countries Considered vast underestimate, due to poor reporting in many developing countries

239 Outsourcing 2 million manufacturing jobs lost between 2001 and 2003 2 million manufacturing jobs lost between 2001 and 2003 Over the last few years, compared to other firms, CEO compensation has increased five times faster at the 50 U.S. firms that do the most outsourcing of jobs Over the last few years, compared to other firms, CEO compensation has increased five times faster at the 50 U.S. firms that do the most outsourcing of jobs

240 Asian Sweatshop

241 The Global Workforce 27 million enslaved laborers 27 million enslaved laborers Slavery occurs in every country in Africa (Unicef) Slavery occurs in every country in Africa (Unicef) 800,000 persons trafficked across international borders annually 800,000 persons trafficked across international borders annually Dollar value of commerce in human beings rivals drug trafficking and illegal arms trade Dollar value of commerce in human beings rivals drug trafficking and illegal arms trade

242 The Global Workforce Over 250 million child laborers Over 250 million child laborers 60% exposed to hazardous conditions; 25% exposed to hazardous chemicals 60% exposed to hazardous conditions; 25% exposed to hazardous chemicals Violations of child labor laws common in U.S. Violations of child labor laws common in U.S.

243 Child Labor

244 Outsourcing the Government More than ½ of federal jobs now outsourced to private corporations More than ½ of federal jobs now outsourced to private corporations More than ½ of contracts no-bid More than ½ of contracts no-bid Threat to democracy Threat to democracy Outsourcing of military Outsourcing of military Mercenaries Mercenaries Demoralizes troops Demoralizes troops

245 The Third World Debt Crisis Over 40 of the poorest countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia owe a total of almost $300 billion in foreign debt Over 40 of the poorest countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia owe a total of almost $300 billion in foreign debt countries borrowed when loans cheap and easy to get countries borrowed when loans cheap and easy to get money lent to corrupt/undemocratic governments during Cold War money lent to corrupt/undemocratic governments during Cold War corruption corruption world prices for main exports declined world prices for main exports declined new loans (at higher interest rates) required to pay interest on debt new loans (at higher interest rates) required to pay interest on debt

246 The Third World Debt Crisis Creditors Creditors US, UK, Japan, France and Germany US, UK, Japan, France and Germany interest rates up to 20-22% in 1980’s interest rates up to 20-22% in 1980’s

247 The Third World Debt Crisis Each African child inherits approximately $379 in debt at birth Each African child inherits approximately $379 in debt at birth debt 100-200% of GDP for Tanzania, Zambia, Ethiopia, and others debt 100-200% of GDP for Tanzania, Zambia, Ethiopia, and others Per capita income in Sub-Saharan Africa has declined in real terms by 6% since 1975 Per capita income in Sub-Saharan Africa has declined in real terms by 6% since 1975 Live Aid (1985 raised $200 million) Live Aid (1985 raised $200 million) Equal to the amount all African countries pay back on foreign debts each week (in 2001) Equal to the amount all African countries pay back on foreign debts each week (in 2001)

248 The Third World Debt Crisis Countries spend more each year repaying debt than on education and healthcare. Countries spend more each year repaying debt than on education and healthcare. Debt will never be paid off Debt will never be paid off

249 Effects of the Third World Debt Crisis Indebted countries drastically cut wages, which slows the economy and decreases purchases of U.S. imports Indebted countries drastically cut wages, which slows the economy and decreases purchases of U.S. imports makes U.S. jobs less secure makes U.S. jobs less secure Currency is devalued. Currency is devalued. imports more expensive; exports cheaper imports more expensive; exports cheaper Government price controls eliminated Government price controls eliminated basic goods more expensive basic goods more expensive

250 Effects of the Third World Debt Crisis Government spending on food, fuel and farming subsidies reduced Government spending on food, fuel and farming subsidies reduced Social service (healthcare/education) program spending cut Social service (healthcare/education) program spending cut Countries strip and sell their natural resources Countries strip and sell their natural resources increased global pollution, etc. increased global pollution, etc.

251 Solution to the Third World Debt Crisis Debt forgiveness

252 Foreign Aid In total dollars: Japan #1, U.S. #2 In total dollars: Japan #1, U.S. #2 Even though the U.S. economy is more than twice the size of Japan’s Even though the U.S. economy is more than twice the size of Japan’s As a % of GDP, U.S. ranks 21 st among the world’s 22 wealthiest nations As a % of GDP, U.S. ranks 21 st among the world’s 22 wealthiest nations More money flows out of developing countries in the form of interest payments, profits of foreign corporations, and clandestine investments in financial markets of rich countries than flows into them as loans, aid, and foreign direct investment More money flows out of developing countries in the form of interest payments, profits of foreign corporations, and clandestine investments in financial markets of rich countries than flows into them as loans, aid, and foreign direct investment

253 Foreign Aid U.S. Aid: Over 1/3 military, 1/4 economic, 1/3 for food and development U.S. Aid: Over 1/3 military, 1/4 economic, 1/3 for food and development Most U.S. aid benefits U.S. corporations, is spent on military, goes to Egypt, Israel, Turkey, Pakistan, and the Philippines Most U.S. aid benefits U.S. corporations, is spent on military, goes to Egypt, Israel, Turkey, Pakistan, and the Philippines

254 Foreign Aid Aid agencies often forced to buy from U.S. companies at inflated prices Aid agencies often forced to buy from U.S. companies at inflated prices 70% of aid effectively returned to U.S. 70% of aid effectively returned to U.S. Food aid inefficient, benefits large agribusiness at expense of local farmers/economies Food aid inefficient, benefits large agribusiness at expense of local farmers/economies Takes $2 taxpayer money to generate $1 in food aid Takes $2 taxpayer money to generate $1 in food aid

255 Foreign Aid 0.9% of the total federal budget, 1.6% of the U.S. discretionary budget 0.9% of the total federal budget, 1.6% of the U.S. discretionary budget Yet 64% of Americans believed in a 1997 poll that foreign aid was the largest federal expenditure Yet 64% of Americans believed in a 1997 poll that foreign aid was the largest federal expenditure On average, Americans think that 24% of the federal budget goes toward foreign aid On average, Americans think that 24% of the federal budget goes toward foreign aid

256 U.S. Charitable Giving Approximately $250 billion/year Approximately $250 billion/year 2.5% of income 2.5% of income 2.9% at height of Great Depression 2.9% at height of Great Depression

257 U.S. Charitable Giving by Income Bracket $15K and under: 26% $15K and under: 26% $15K - $30K: 9% $15K - $30K: 9% $30K - $50K: 5.3% $30K - $50K: 5.3% $50K - $100K: 3.8% $50K - $100K: 3.8% $100K - $200K: 3.0% $100K - $200K: 3.0% $200K and over: 3.4% $200K and over: 3.4%

258 American Charitable Giving Religious Groups: 35% Religious Groups: 35% Education: 13% Education: 13% Multipurpose Foundations: 10% Multipurpose Foundations: 10% Social Services: 8% Social Services: 8% Health: 8% Health: 8% Arts and Culture: 6% Arts and Culture: 6%

259 American Charitable Giving Science: 5% Science: 5% Environment and Animals: 3% Environment and Animals: 3% International Aid: 2% International Aid: 2% Other: 9% Other: 9% - Includes individual, corporate, foundation, and bequest donations Less than 10% goes to groups which directly help the poor Less than 10% goes to groups which directly help the poor

260 The Gates Foundation Endowment of approximately $35 billion, with another $31 billion pledged by Buffett Foundation Endowment of approximately $35 billion, with another $31 billion pledged by Buffett Foundation Donates 5% of its worth/yr, invests 95% (typical for charities) Donates 5% of its worth/yr, invests 95% (typical for charities) Drives international public health agenda Drives international public health agenda Most grants go to organizations in high-income countries Most grants go to organizations in high-income countries

261 The Gates Foundation Lack of external oversight, accountability Lack of external oversight, accountability At least 41% of its assets invested in companies that counter the foundations charitable goals or socially concerned philosophy At least 41% of its assets invested in companies that counter the foundations charitable goals or socially concerned philosophy E.g., Oil and chemical companies, agrobusiness, pharmaceutical industry E.g., Oil and chemical companies, agrobusiness, pharmaceutical industry Lancet 2009;373:1645-53 Lancet 2009;373:1645-53 http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na- gatesx07jan07,0,6827615.story http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na- gatesx07jan07,0,6827615.story http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na- gatesx07jan07,0,6827615.story http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na- gatesx07jan07,0,6827615.story

262 Distribution of federal income taxes - 2007 Military: $558 billion Military: $558 billion Health: $428 billion Health: $428 billion Interest on debt: $399 billion Interest on debt: $399 billion Income security: $124 billion Income security: $124 billion Education: $93 billion Education: $93 billion Veterans’ benefits and services: $69 billion Veterans’ benefits and services: $69 billion

263 Distribution of federal income taxes - 2007 Nutrition: $54 billion Nutrition: $54 billion Housing: $38 billion Housing: $38 billion Natural resources and the environment: $31 billion Natural resources and the environment: $31 billion Job training: $6 billion Job training: $6 billion Other: $255 billion Other: $255 billion

264 The Military and Pollution World’s single largest polluter World’s single largest polluter 6-10% of global air pollution 6-10% of global air pollution 2-11% of world raw material use 2-11% of world raw material use

265 The Military and Pollution 97% of all high level and 78% of all low level nuclear waste 97% of all high level and 78% of all low level nuclear waste 1054 U.S. nuclear tests since 1940s, 331 in atmosphere 1054 U.S. nuclear tests since 1940s, 331 in atmosphere 104 U.S. nuclear reactors 104 U.S. nuclear reactors More than 210 million liters of radioactive and chemical waste stored at Hanford, WA More than 210 million liters of radioactive and chemical waste stored at Hanford, WA Site plagued by leaks Site plagued by leaks

266 The Military and Pollution Pentagon generates 750,000 tons hazardous waste/year Pentagon generates 750,000 tons hazardous waste/year Numerous toxic waste sites Numerous toxic waste sites Exempt from most environmental regulations Exempt from most environmental regulations

267 The Military and Pollution “The more birds that the [Department of Defense] kill[s], the more enjoyment [people] will get from seeing the ones that remain: ‘Bird watchers get more enjoyment spotting a rare bird than they do spotting a common one.’” “The more birds that the [Department of Defense] kill[s], the more enjoyment [people] will get from seeing the ones that remain: ‘Bird watchers get more enjoyment spotting a rare bird than they do spotting a common one.’” From a 2002 court summary of the U.S. Defense Department’s argument for exemption from the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 From a 2002 court summary of the U.S. Defense Department’s argument for exemption from the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918

268

269 War and Peace World military budget = $1,232 billion in 2006 World military budget = $1,232 billion in 2006 228X what the UN spent on peacekeeping 228X what the UN spent on peacekeeping US: US: Largest military budget; largest arms supplier Largest military budget; largest arms supplier $32 billion in arms sales in 2008, up from $12 billion in 2005 $32 billion in arms sales in 2008, up from $12 billion in 2005 Greatest debtor to peacekeeping fund Greatest debtor to peacekeeping fund

270 The Military: Diversion of Resources Away from Health Care 3 hours world arms spending = annual WHO budget 3 hours world arms spending = annual WHO budget 1/2 day of world arms spending = full childhood immunizations for all world’s children 1/2 day of world arms spending = full childhood immunizations for all world’s children 3 days of U.S. military spending = amt. spent on health, education, and welfare for U.S. children in 1 year 3 days of U.S. military spending = amt. spent on health, education, and welfare for U.S. children in 1 year

271 The Military: Diversion of Resources Away from Health Care and Other Scientific Projects 3 weeks of world arms spending/yr. = primary health care for all in poor countries, incl. safe water and full immunizations 3 weeks of world arms spending/yr. = primary health care for all in poor countries, incl. safe water and full immunizations 25% of the world’s 2.5 million research scientists and engineers work entirely on military R and D 25% of the world’s 2.5 million research scientists and engineers work entirely on military R and D Anthropologists co-opted under U.S. Army’s Human Terrain Team Anthropologists co-opted under U.S. Army’s Human Terrain Team Iraq/Afghanistan war creating enormous U.S. debt / federal and state budgets strapped Iraq/Afghanistan war creating enormous U.S. debt / federal and state budgets strapped

272 War Deaths, 1945-2000

273 Arms Exports

274 Arms Imports

275 “Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.” ~ Dwight D. Eisenhower

276 “ The problem in defense spending is to figure out how far you should go without destroying from within what you are trying to defend from without.” ~Dwight D. Eisenhower

277 Poverty and Hunger US: 13% of residents and 18% of children live in poverty US: 13% of residents and 18% of children live in poverty Rates of poverty in Blacks and Hispanics = 2X Whites Rates of poverty in Blacks and Hispanics = 2X Whites 2009 federal poverty level = $10,830 gross annual income (individual); $22,050 for family of 4 2009 federal poverty level = $10,830 gross annual income (individual); $22,050 for family of 4 Hunger rate increasing nationally Hunger rate increasing nationally Poverty associated with worse physical and mental health Poverty associated with worse physical and mental health

278 Poverty, Health Insurance, and Food Insecurity in Oregon Poverty 12.9% (2007) Poverty 12.9% (2007) Between 2006 and 2007, 17.3% lacked health insurance for a year or more Between 2006 and 2007, 17.3% lacked health insurance for a year or more Including 103,000 children Including 103,000 children Cost of maintaining COBRA health insurance for a family consumes 84% of worker’s unemployment benefits Cost of maintaining COBRA health insurance for a family consumes 84% of worker’s unemployment benefits Food insecurity 9.4% (2007) Food insecurity 9.4% (2007)

279

280

281

282

283 Poverty At least 1 billion people live in urban slums At least 1 billion people live in urban slums 1.1 billion people lack access to safe, clean drinking water -1.8 million child deaths/year 1.1 billion people lack access to safe, clean drinking water -1.8 million child deaths/year 2 billion have no electricity 2 billion have no electricity 2.6 billion do not have adequate sanitation services 2.6 billion do not have adequate sanitation services

284 Poverty 2.8 billion live on less than $2/day 2.8 billion live on less than $2/day 3 billion have never made a phone call 3 billion have never made a phone call 3.8 billion have no cash or credit with which to make purchases 3.8 billion have no cash or credit with which to make purchases 770 million unable to read 770 million unable to read 2006: net transfer of capital of $784 billion from poorer countries to rich ones 2006: net transfer of capital of $784 billion from poorer countries to rich ones

285 Human Poverty

286 Poverty

287 Poverty, Hunger, and Micronutrients Cost of providing vitamin A and zinc supplements to malnourished infants and toddlers under age 2 = $60 million/year Cost of providing vitamin A and zinc supplements to malnourished infants and toddlers under age 2 = $60 million/year Benefits (including prevention of blindness and malnutrition) > $1 billion/yr Benefits (including prevention of blindness and malnutrition) > $1 billion/yr Cost of providing iron and iodized salt = $286 million/year Cost of providing iron and iodized salt = $286 million/year Benefits (including prevention of iron-deficiency anemia, cretinism) = $2.7 billion/yr Benefits (including prevention of iron-deficiency anemia, cretinism) = $2.7 billion/yr

288 Poverty and Priorities Amount of money needed each year (in addition to current expenditures) to provide water and sanitation for all people in developing nations = $9 billion Amount of money needed each year (in addition to current expenditures) to provide water and sanitation for all people in developing nations = $9 billion Amount of money spent annually on cosmetics in the U.S. = $8 billion Amount of money spent annually on cosmetics in the U.S. = $8 billion

289 Poverty and Priorities Amount of money needed each year ( in addition to current expenditures) to provide reproductive health care for all women in developing countries = $12 billion Amount of money needed each year ( in addition to current expenditures) to provide reproductive health care for all women in developing countries = $12 billion Amount of money spent annually on perfumes in Europe and the U.S. = $12 billion Amount of money spent annually on perfumes in Europe and the U.S. = $12 billion

290 Poverty and Priorities Americans bought > $57 billion worth of lottery tickets in 2008 (more money than is spent on movies, music, and books combined) Americans bought > $57 billion worth of lottery tickets in 2008 (more money than is spent on movies, music, and books combined) In 2006, Americans spent $31 billion on toys and video games In 2006, Americans spent $31 billion on toys and video games Almost as much as the rest of the world combined Almost as much as the rest of the world combined 80% of U.S. toys made in China 80% of U.S. toys made in China Consider alternate gifts, charitable donations Consider alternate gifts, charitable donations

291 Toy Exports

292 Toy Imports

293 U.N. Declaration of Human Rights “Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care”

294

295 Famine 1.5 billion not consuming enough calories to prevent stunted growth/other health risks 1.5 billion not consuming enough calories to prevent stunted growth/other health risks Hunger kills 18,000 people per day, most under age 5 Hunger kills 18,000 people per day, most under age 5 Hunger-related causes kill as many people in 8 days as the atomic bomb killed at Hiroshima Hunger-related causes kill as many people in 8 days as the atomic bomb killed at Hiroshima

296 Famine UN FAO: enough food produced daily to provide every living person with over 2700 calories/day UN FAO: enough food produced daily to provide every living person with over 2700 calories/day Even so, half the world’s food is wasted (UN FAO) Even so, half the world’s food is wasted (UN FAO) Diversion of food crops to biofuels contributing to rise in food prices Diversion of food crops to biofuels contributing to rise in food prices

297 Monetization and Food Aid US food aid purchased from already- subsidized US agribusiness US food aid purchased from already- subsidized US agribusiness US shipping lines transport food to aid organizations in developing countries US shipping lines transport food to aid organizations in developing countries Undermines local farmers and destabilizes local agriculture Undermines local farmers and destabilizes local agriculture

298 Monetization and Food Aid EU has almost entirely phased out monetization EU has almost entirely phased out monetization UN World Food Programme (the world’s largest distributor of food aid) has rejected monetization and refuses monetized food aid UN World Food Programme (the world’s largest distributor of food aid) has rejected monetization and refuses monetized food aid

299 Famine Rich governments and corporations buying up rights to millions of hectares of agricultural land in developing countries in order to secure their own long-term food supplies Rich governments and corporations buying up rights to millions of hectares of agricultural land in developing countries in order to secure their own long-term food supplies One week of developed world farm subsidies = annual cost of food aid to solve world hunger One week of developed world farm subsidies = annual cost of food aid to solve world hunger Hunger: solution requires political will Hunger: solution requires political will

300 Feast and Famine For the first time in history, there are now an equal number of people – 1.1 billion – who get too much to eat as those who don’t have enough to eat For the first time in history, there are now an equal number of people – 1.1 billion – who get too much to eat as those who don’t have enough to eat

301 Famine

302 Famine Affects the Old and Young

303 Medical Care 50% of global health care budget spent in the U.S. 50% of global health care budget spent in the U.S. Currently only 10% of funding devoted to diseases affecting 90% of world’s population Currently only 10% of funding devoted to diseases affecting 90% of world’s population Per capita expenditure on health care: Per capita expenditure on health care: U.S. = $8,160 U.S. = $8,160 Typical poor African/Asian country = $5-10 Typical poor African/Asian country = $5-10

304 Medical Care Even so, U.S. has 46 million uninsured, ranks 24 th worldwide in overall population health as judged by disability-adjusted life expectancy and ranks 42 nd in global life expectancy Even so, U.S. has 46 million uninsured, ranks 24 th worldwide in overall population health as judged by disability-adjusted life expectancy and ranks 42 nd in global life expectancy Lack of universal health care limits workforce mobility Lack of universal health care limits workforce mobility 2008 study: 7% say they or a family member has married in order to get health insurance 2008 study: 7% say they or a family member has married in order to get health insurance

305 Headline from The Onion Uninsured Man Hopes His Symptoms Diagnosed This Week On House

306 Infectious Diseases Increased morbidity and mortality due to changing distributions of disease vectors, reservoirs, and agents -overpopulation and population shifts -malnutrition -drought -decreased immunity Increased morbidity and mortality due to changing distributions of disease vectors, reservoirs, and agents -overpopulation and population shifts -malnutrition -drought -decreased immunity

307 Infectious Diseases Malaria -61 0 min zone expands -50-80 million additional cases/year by 2100 Malaria -61 0 min zone expands -50-80 million additional cases/year by 2100 TB TB Viral encephalitis Viral encephalitis Schistosomiasis Schistosomiasis AIDS AIDS Influenza Influenza Trypanosomiasis Trypanosomiasis

308 Infectious Diseases Onchocerciasis Onchocerciasis Dengre Dengre Leishmanasis Leishmanasis Rabies Rabies Hookworm Hookworm Yellow fever Yellow fever West Nile Virus West Nile Virus

309 HIV/AIDS 2008: 33 million infected 2008: 33 million infected 2007: 2 million deaths 2007: 2 million deaths Sub-Saharan Africa hardest hit Sub-Saharan Africa hardest hit Only 20% of HIV+ individuals in low and middle-income countries know they are infected Only 20% of HIV+ individuals in low and middle-income countries know they are infected Less than 1/3 of those needing therapy receive any medication Less than 1/3 of those needing therapy receive any medication

310 HIV Prevalence

311 Malaria Deaths

312 Species Loss Earth contains an estimated 5 to 10 million species Earth contains an estimated 5 to 10 million species Only 1.5 million have been identified Only 1.5 million have been identified Rate of extinction = 4,000-6,000 species/year, highest estimates = 4 species/hour - over 1000 x background rate of extinction Rate of extinction = 4,000-6,000 species/year, highest estimates = 4 species/hour - over 1000 x background rate of extinction

313 Species Loss 50,000 vertebrates - 7,100 of 10,000 bird species threatened with extinction - 1/4 of 4,400 mammalian species - 1/2 of 232 primate species (including man?) 50,000 vertebrates - 7,100 of 10,000 bird species threatened with extinction - 1/4 of 4,400 mammalian species - 1/2 of 232 primate species (including man?) bush meat trade contributing bush meat trade contributing - 1/3 of 24,000 fish species - 30-50% of 10,300 reptile and amphibian species (may be higher, limited assessment) Almost ¾ of flowering plants at risk of extinction Almost ¾ of flowering plants at risk of extinction

314 Precipitous Decline of Alpha Predators will have enormous repercussions for ecosystems/other species

315

316

317 Species Loss 6000-8000 Orangutans left in Borneo 6000-8000 Orangutans left in Borneo 2400 Manatees in Florida 2400 Manatees in Florida 30-50 Florida Panthers 30-50 Florida Panthers 1 Pacific Manzanita Plant 1 Pacific Manzanita Plant

318 Species Loss More than 1600 animals on ES list today – many more at risk More than 1600 animals on ES list today – many more at risk 73% of plants and animals that have gone extinct since 1973 were not listed 73% of plants and animals that have gone extinct since 1973 were not listed Yangtze River dolphins extinct as of 2007 Yangtze River dolphins extinct as of 2007 Polar bears, Adelie penguins at risk of extinction due to global warming Polar bears, Adelie penguins at risk of extinction due to global warming

319

320

321 Causes of Species Loss Habitat loss (logging, overpopulation, etc.) - #1 cause now Habitat loss (logging, overpopulation, etc.) - #1 cause now Global warming – est. #2 cause by 2050 Global warming – est. #2 cause by 2050 Overhunting Overhunting

322 Causes of Species Loss Chemical pollution of environment Chemical pollution of environment Exotic species invasions (e.g. rabbits/Australia; role of ballast water, link of shipping with GDP): Exotic species invasions (e.g. rabbits/Australia; role of ballast water, link of shipping with GDP): Cost = $1.4 trillion/yr (5% of global economy); $130 billion/yr in US Cost = $1.4 trillion/yr (5% of global economy); $130 billion/yr in US HUMANS HUMANS

323 Extinction: Lost Pharmacopoeia Drugs from plants and native peoples’ health knowledge -More than 1/2 of the top 150 prescription drugs contain an active compound derived from or patterned after natural products -e.g. aspirin, acyclovir, lovastatin, digoxin, vincristine, etoposide, captopril, cyclosporine, sirolimus, vancomycin, paralytic agents, warfarin, etc. Drugs from plants and native peoples’ health knowledge -More than 1/2 of the top 150 prescription drugs contain an active compound derived from or patterned after natural products -e.g. aspirin, acyclovir, lovastatin, digoxin, vincristine, etoposide, captopril, cyclosporine, sirolimus, vancomycin, paralytic agents, warfarin, etc. Of the more than 250,000 known flowering species, <0.5% have been surveyed for medicinal value Of the more than 250,000 known flowering species, <0.5% have been surveyed for medicinal value

324 A Cure for Cancer?

325 The Black Market in Endangered Animals $10 billion market -equal to smuggled arms market -less than contraband drug market ($30 Billion) $10 billion market -equal to smuggled arms market -less than contraband drug market ($30 Billion) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Still allows more than 100 million individuals of rare species to be bought and sold each year Still allows more than 100 million individuals of rare species to be bought and sold each year

326

327

328

329 Worrisome Trends Environmental Audit Laws Environmental Audit Laws Increased federal pre-emption of state laws Increased federal pre-emption of state laws WTO/World Bank/IMF Policies WTO/World Bank/IMF Policies MAI MAI

330 Worrisome Trends GATT, NAFTA, CAFTA, other trade agreements GATT, NAFTA, CAFTA, other trade agreements Food Disparagement Laws Food Disparagement Laws SLAPP Lawsuits SLAPP Lawsuits Corruption of judiciary by campaign contributions Corruption of judiciary by campaign contributions 86% of US judges are elected 86% of US judges are elected

331 Bush Administration Key administrators/committee members/regulators former industry representatives and/or lobbyists Key administrators/committee members/regulators former industry representatives and/or lobbyists Corporate profit before public good Corporate profit before public good Unsound/distorted/suppressed science Unsound/distorted/suppressed science

332 Bush Administration Eco-harassment Eco-harassment Criminalizing activists Criminalizing activists Rollbacks of key environmental laws Rollbacks of key environmental laws Lax enforcement of existing laws Lax enforcement of existing laws OMB estimates annual benefits of major federal regulations between 1996 and 2006 = $99 billion - $484 billion, annual costs = $40 billion - $46 billion OMB estimates annual benefits of major federal regulations between 1996 and 2006 = $99 billion - $484 billion, annual costs = $40 billion - $46 billion Huge tax cuts primarily benefit wealthy Huge tax cuts primarily benefit wealthy

333

334 Obama Administration Change?

335 Status of Women in the Third World Poverty Poverty Impaired access to employment and education Impaired access to employment and education Lack of reproductive health services, early childbearing, large families Lack of reproductive health services, early childbearing, large families

336 Status of Women in the Third World Political marginalization Political marginalization Discriminatory and “cultural practices” -forced prostitution, female genital mutilation, etc. Discriminatory and “cultural practices” -forced prostitution, female genital mutilation, etc. Trafficking, sex slavery Trafficking, sex slavery

337 Status of Women Economic discrimination Economic discrimination women do 67% of the world’s work women do 67% of the world’s work receive 10% of global income receive 10% of global income own 1% of all property own 1% of all property Poverty Poverty Women make up 45% of the global employed workforce, yet are 70% of the world’s poor Women make up 45% of the global employed workforce, yet are 70% of the world’s poor

338 Would You Sign a Petition to Ban Dihydrogen Monoxide? 1. It can cause excessive sweating and vomiting 2. It is a major component in acid rain 3. It can cause severe burns in its gaseous state 4. It can kill you if accidentally inhaled 5. It contributes to erosion 6. It decreases effectiveness of automobile brakes 7. It has been found in tumors of terminal cancer patients

339 Geographic Ignorance Percent of US teens unable to locate the following on a map: Percent of US teens unable to locate the following on a map: United States – 11% United States – 11% Pacific Ocean – 29% Pacific Ocean – 29% Japan – 58% Japan – 58% United Kingdom – 68% United Kingdom – 68%

340 Pseudoscientific Beliefs Percentage of Americans who believe “at least to some degree” in these “phenomena” 19971976 Astrology37% 17% Astrology37% 17% UFOs30% 24% UFOs30% 24% Reincarnation25% 9% Reincarnation25% 9% Fortune-Telling14%4% Fortune-Telling14%4%

341 Pseudoscientific Beliefs Half of US citizens do not believe in evolution and do believe that humans and dinosaurs coexisted (2007) Half of US citizens do not believe in evolution and do believe that humans and dinosaurs coexisted (2007) 37% believe places can be haunted (2007) 37% believe places can be haunted (2007) 25% believe in UFOs (2007) 25% believe in UFOs (2007) 22% of Americans don’t know whether an atomic bomb has ever been dropped (2000) 22% of Americans don’t know whether an atomic bomb has ever been dropped (2000)

342 Pseudoscientific Beliefs 20% of Americans don’t know the earth revolves around the sun (1999) 20% of Americans don’t know the earth revolves around the sun (1999) 18% believe in Bigfoot and the Loch Ness Monster (2007) 18% believe in Bigfoot and the Loch Ness Monster (2007) 8% of men / 18% of women believe in astrology and fortune tellers (2007) 8% of men / 18% of women believe in astrology and fortune tellers (2007)

343

344 Greenwash Public relations / ad campaigns -Chevron’s “People Do” Campaign, butterflies/refinery -BP invests $100 million annually in clean energy = amt. it spends annually to market its new name and environmentally- friendly image of moving “Beyond Petroleum” Public relations / ad campaigns -Chevron’s “People Do” Campaign, butterflies/refinery -BP invests $100 million annually in clean energy = amt. it spends annually to market its new name and environmentally- friendly image of moving “Beyond Petroleum” -Dupont Freon Campaign in 1970’s -Grants to a few scientists who challenge environmental warnings -tobacco ads in 1950’s Bluewash: association with UN principles/logo Bluewash: association with UN principles/logo

345 Astroturf Artificially-created grassroots coalitions Artificially-created grassroots coalitions Utilize specially tailored mailing lists, field officers, telephone banks, fax machines, intense lobbying Utilize specially tailored mailing lists, field officers, telephone banks, fax machines, intense lobbying May be one or two individuals, or run by a PR firm, or have “volunteer” employee members May be one or two individuals, or run by a PR firm, or have “volunteer” employee members

346 Corporate Front Groups The American Council on Science and Health The American Council on Science and Health The Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy The Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy The Oregon Lands Coalition The Oregon Lands Coalition National Wilderness Institute National Wilderness Institute The Environmental Conservation Organization The Environmental Conservation Organization The Foundation for Clean Air Progress The Foundation for Clean Air Progress Similar semantics for new laws/congressional bills Similar semantics for new laws/congressional bills

347 Corporate PR tactics Invoke poor people as beneficiaries Invoke poor people as beneficiaries Characterize opposition as “technophobic,” anti-science,” and “against progress” Characterize opposition as “technophobic,” anti-science,” and “against progress” Portray their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of (or despite the) evidence Portray their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of (or despite the) evidence

348 Chief Seattle “You must teach your children that the ground beneath their feet is the ashes of your grandfathers. So that they will respect the land, tell your children that the earth is rich with the lives of our kin. Teach your children what we have taught our children, that the earth is our mother. Whatever befalls the earth befalls the sons of the earth. If men spit upon the ground, they spit upon themselves.”

349 Sponsored Environmental Educational Materials Corporate-sponsored and supported by a loose coalition of antiregulatory zealots, corporate polluters, lapdog scientists and misguided parents Corporate-sponsored and supported by a loose coalition of antiregulatory zealots, corporate polluters, lapdog scientists and misguided parents

350 Sponsored Environmental Education Materials (Examples) Exxon’s “Energy Cube” Exxon’s “Energy Cube” -“Gasoline is simply solar power hidden in decayed matter” -“Offshore drilling creates reefs for fish” Pacific Lumber Company Pacific Lumber Company -“The Great American Forest is... renewable forever”

351 Sponsored Environmental Education Materials (Examples) International Paper International Paper -“Clearcutting promotes growth of trees that require full sunlight and allows efficient site preparation for the next crop” American Nuclear Society’s “Activities with the Atoms Family” American Nuclear Society’s “Activities with the Atoms Family” Dow’s “Chemipalooza” Dow’s “Chemipalooza”

352 Worrisome Trends Advertising Budgets ↑↑ Advertising Budgets ↑↑ US now spends $250 billion/yr on advertising US now spends $250 billion/yr on advertising 10% of a two-year olds nouns are brand names 10% of a two-year olds nouns are brand names Public Education in disarray Public Education in disarray 1/3 of America’s 80,000 schools need extensive repair or replacement 1/3 of America’s 80,000 schools need extensive repair or replacement

353 Worrisome Trends Television Television Average American watches over 4 hours of TV daily Average American watches over 4 hours of TV daily TV sets now outnumber homes in America TV sets now outnumber homes in America Higher Education increasingly expensive Higher Education increasingly expensive

354

355 Academics at Risk Increasing corporatization of academia Increasing corporatization of academia Private commercial funding of university research: Private commercial funding of university research: $264 million in 1980 $264 million in 1980 $2 billion in 2001 $2 billion in 2001 Secrecy/Pseudoscience Secrecy/Pseudoscience AAPG Notable Achievement in Journalism prize to Michael Crichton for State of Fear (which denies global warming) AAPG Notable Achievement in Journalism prize to Michael Crichton for State of Fear (which denies global warming) Subversion of science by Bush Administration Subversion of science by Bush Administration

356 Academics at Risk Contingent faculty up from 43% (1079) to 73% today Contingent faculty up from 43% (1079) to 73% today Paid ¼ amount of regular faculty Paid ¼ amount of regular faculty No benefits No benefits No job security, opportunities for career advancement No job security, opportunities for career advancement Tuition up, administrators’ salaries skyrocketing Tuition up, administrators’ salaries skyrocketing Brain drain Brain drain Lack of scientists in developing world (1/50 th of developed world per capita) Lack of scientists in developing world (1/50 th of developed world per capita)

357 The Media Most media organizations owned by multinational, multi-billion dollar corporations that are involved in a number of businesses apart from the media, such as forestry, pulp and paper mills, defense, real estate, oil wells, agriculture, steel production, railways, and water and power utilities Most media organizations owned by multinational, multi-billion dollar corporations that are involved in a number of businesses apart from the media, such as forestry, pulp and paper mills, defense, real estate, oil wells, agriculture, steel production, railways, and water and power utilities

358 Global Warming: Controversial? Of 928 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals, 0% were in doubt as to the existence or cause of global warming Of 928 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals, 0% were in doubt as to the existence or cause of global warming Of 636 articles in the popular press (NY Times, Washington Post, LA Times, WSJ), 53% expressed doubt as to the existence (and primary cause) of global warming Of 636 articles in the popular press (NY Times, Washington Post, LA Times, WSJ), 53% expressed doubt as to the existence (and primary cause) of global warming Science 2004;306:1686-7 (Study covers 1993-2003) IPCC / Al Gore share 2007 Nobel Peace Prize IPCC / Al Gore share 2007 Nobel Peace Prize

359 The Media 5 corporations control majority of US media (down from 50 in 1983) 5 corporations control majority of US media (down from 50 in 1983) Mass Media Sources, 2002: Mass Media Sources, 2002: 92% white 92% white 85% male 85% male Where party affiliation identifiable, 75% Republican Where party affiliation identifiable, 75% Republican Predominantly conservative/centrist Predominantly conservative/centrist

360 Lobbying Over 15,000 full-time lobbyists Over 15,000 full-time lobbyists Estimates of return on lobbying range from $28 to $100 for every $1 spent Estimates of return on lobbying range from $28 to $100 for every $1 spent Pharmaceutical lobby spent $1.3 billion on lobbying between 1998 and 2007 Pharmaceutical lobby spent $1.3 billion on lobbying between 1998 and 2007 More than any other industry More than any other industry

361 Lobbying Lobbying groups spent just under 2.5 billion in 2006 (record) Lobbying groups spent just under 2.5 billion in 2006 (record) Financial sector spent over $1.7 billion on campaign contributions for federal elections from 1998-2008 Financial sector spent over $1.7 billion on campaign contributions for federal elections from 1998-2008 All single issue ideological groups combined (e.g., pro- choice, anti-abortion, feminist and consumer organizations, senior citizens, etc.) = $76.2 million All single issue ideological groups combined (e.g., pro- choice, anti-abortion, feminist and consumer organizations, senior citizens, etc.) = $76.2 million

362 Lobbying Agribusiness/oil industry lobbying dwarf environmental lobbying Agribusiness/oil industry lobbying dwarf environmental lobbying Active lobbying (new laws, not enforce existing laws or fund existing programs) Active lobbying (new laws, not enforce existing laws or fund existing programs) “Lobbying for lethargy” (maintain status quo) “Lobbying for lethargy” (maintain status quo)

363 Corporate Influence Leads to Large Taxpayer Subsidies to Polluting Industries Mining - $3.6 billion/yr Mining - $3.6 billion/yr Nuclear power - $10.5 billion/yr Nuclear power - $10.5 billion/yr Coal - $8 billion/yr Coal - $8 billion/yr Ranching (grazing on public lands) - $52 million/yr Ranching (grazing on public lands) - $52 million/yr Timber (below cost sales of national forest trees) – approx. $350 million/yr Timber (below cost sales of national forest trees) – approx. $350 million/yr Oil and gas - $550 million/yr Oil and gas - $550 million/yr

364 Privatization of Public Services Roads Roads Public schools Public schools Child support enforcement Child support enforcement Military Military Others Others Iraqi reconstruction, disaster capitalism Iraqi reconstruction, disaster capitalism

365 The Decline of Democracy True democracy demands an informed citizenry (education), freedom of the press (media), and involvement (will, time, money) True democracy demands an informed citizenry (education), freedom of the press (media), and involvement (will, time, money) “Information is the currency of democracy” “Information is the currency of democracy” Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson

366 Colonial Exploitation Cecil Rhodes (Rhodesia, Rhodes Scholarship, DeBeers Mining Company): Cecil Rhodes (Rhodesia, Rhodes Scholarship, DeBeers Mining Company): “We must find new lands from which we can easily obtain raw materials and at the same time exploit the cheap slave labour that is available from the natives of the colonies. The colonies would also provide a dumping ground for the surplus goods produced in our factories.”

367 Colonial Exploitation Winston Churchill (speaking in favor of RAF’s “experimental” bombing of Iraqis in 1920s, which killed 9,000 people with 97 tons of bombs): Winston Churchill (speaking in favor of RAF’s “experimental” bombing of Iraqis in 1920s, which killed 9,000 people with 97 tons of bombs): “I am strongly in favor of using poisoned gas against uncivilized tribes to spread a lively terror…against recalcitrant Arabs as an experiment”

368 Colonial Exploitation Christopher Columbus’ log entry upon meeting the Arawaks of the Bahamas: Christopher Columbus’ log entry upon meeting the Arawaks of the Bahamas: “They…brought us…many…things…They willingly traded everything they owned…They do not bear arms…They would make fine servants…With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.”

369 The US: Rogue Nation History: Native Americans, slavery, current excesses, disparities and injustices History: Native Americans, slavery, current excesses, disparities and injustices Co-opting Nazi and Japanese WWII scientists Co-opting Nazi and Japanese WWII scientists Minimum 277 troop deployments by the US in its 225+ year history Minimum 277 troop deployments by the US in its 225+ year history

370 The US: Rogue Nation Since the end of WWII, the US has bombed: Since the end of WWII, the US has bombed: China, Korea, Indonesia, Cuba, Guatemala, Congo, Peru, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Grenada, Libya, Panama, Afghanistan, Sudan, Yugoslavia, and Iraq China, Korea, Indonesia, Cuba, Guatemala, Congo, Peru, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Grenada, Libya, Panama, Afghanistan, Sudan, Yugoslavia, and Iraq

371 The US: Rogue Nation Conservative estimate = 8 million killed Conservative estimate = 8 million killed US invasions/bombings often largely at behest of corporate interests US invasions/bombings often largely at behest of corporate interests European colonial history similar European colonial history similar

372 The US: Rogue Nation The US spends vastly more on militarization than on peacemaking The US spends vastly more on militarization than on peacemaking The US maintains military bases in 69 “sovereign” nations around the world The US maintains military bases in 69 “sovereign” nations around the world Continued funding of the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation Continued funding of the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation

373 International Non- Cooperation/Isolationism Failure to sign or approve: Failure to sign or approve: Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights Convention on the Prohibition of Anti- Personnel Land Mines Convention on the Prohibition of Anti- Personnel Land Mines Treaty to ban cluster bombs Treaty to ban cluster bombs

374 International Non- Cooperation/Isolationism Failure to sign or approve: Failure to sign or approve: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Convention on the Rights of the Child Convention on the Rights of the Child Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women Convention for the Suppression of Traffic in Persons Convention for the Suppression of Traffic in Persons

375 International Non- Cooperation/Isolationism Failure to sign or approve: Failure to sign or approve: Protocol 1, Article 55 of the Geneva Conventions, which bans methods or means of warfare which are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment Protocol 1, Article 55 of the Geneva Conventions, which bans methods or means of warfare which are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment

376 International Non- Cooperation/Isolationism Failure to sign or approve Failure to sign or approve The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (re GM foods) The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (re GM foods)

377 The US: Rogue Nation Death Penalty: Death Penalty: US executes more of its citizens than any other country US executes more of its citizens than any other country US is the only country to execute both juveniles and the mentally ill US is the only country to execute both juveniles and the mentally ill Failure to follow World Court Decisions Failure to follow World Court Decisions Largest debtor to the UN (only 40% of dues paid) Largest debtor to the UN (only 40% of dues paid)

378 The US: Rogue Nation Patriot Act, government spying, revocation of habeas corpus, presidential signing statements Patriot Act, government spying, revocation of habeas corpus, presidential signing statements Cited by Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International for Human Rights Violations Cited by Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International for Human Rights Violations

379 Positive Trends Majority of U.S. citizens rate the environment as one of the most important issues facing the country, think the government is doing too little to safeguard the environment, and favor environmental protection over economic expansion Majority of U.S. citizens rate the environment as one of the most important issues facing the country, think the government is doing too little to safeguard the environment, and favor environmental protection over economic expansion Power/voice of green groups increasing Power/voice of green groups increasing Involvement of religious groups growing Involvement of religious groups growing

380 Positive Trends Insurance industry urging reductions in global emissions Insurance industry urging reductions in global emissions due to dramatic increase in weather- related claims due to dramatic increase in weather- related claims Analogy with smoking Analogy with smoking

381 The “Benefits” of Sterility-Causing Chemicals in the Workplace? 12 September 1977 12 September 1977 Dr. Eula Bingham, Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health [Regarding] worker exposure to DBCP. While involuntary sterility caused by a manufactured chemical may be bad, it is not necessarily so. After all, there are many people who are now paying to have themselves sterilized to assure they will no longer be able to become parents... If possible sterility is the main problem, couldn’t workers who were old enough that they no longer wanted to have children accept such positions voluntarily? Or…some [workers] might volunteer for such workposts as an alternative to planned surgery for a vasectomy or tubal ligation, or as a means of getting around religious bans on birth control when they want no more children? Sincerely, Robert K. Phillips, National Peach Council

382 Environmental Success Story The Montreal Protocol (1987) Phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by 1996 Phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by 1996 CFC MDIs phased out in US by 2008 (tetrafluoroethane or HFA = substitute) CFC MDIs phased out in US by 2008 (tetrafluoroethane or HFA = substitute) Major cause of Antarctic and Arctic ozone holes Major cause of Antarctic and Arctic ozone holes Should disappear by 2060 Should disappear by 2060 Current substitute, HCFCs, much less damaging to ozone layer, also to be phased out Current substitute, HCFCs, much less damaging to ozone layer, also to be phased out

383 REACH Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals European Treaty requiring companies to test chemicals already on the market by a set timetable and test new products before putting them on the market European Treaty requiring companies to test chemicals already on the market by a set timetable and test new products before putting them on the market

384 REACH Cost of evaluations < 1% of chemical industry’s total sales Cost of evaluations < 1% of chemical industry’s total sales Economic analyses show REACH could bring environmental benefits worth €95 billion over the next 25 years and result in health cost savings of €50 billion over the next 30 years Economic analyses show REACH could bring environmental benefits worth €95 billion over the next 25 years and result in health cost savings of €50 billion over the next 30 years

385 Solutions Based on the Precautionary Principle “When evidence points toward the potential of an activity to cause significant, widespread or irreparable harm to public health or the environment, options for avoiding that harm should be examined and pursued, even though the harm is not yet fully understood or proven”

386 The Precautionary Principle: Practical Essentials Give human and environmental health the benefit of doubt Give human and environmental health the benefit of doubt Include appropriate public participation in the discussion Include appropriate public participation in the discussion Gather unbiased, scientific, technological and socioeconomic information Gather unbiased, scientific, technological and socioeconomic information Consider less risky alternatives Consider less risky alternatives

387 The Precautionary Principle Endorsed by APHA, ANA, CMA, others Endorsed by APHA, ANA, CMA, others Puerto Rico, San Francisco have adopted, among others Puerto Rico, San Francisco have adopted, among others Big business, US Chamber of Commerce oppose Big business, US Chamber of Commerce oppose

388 Solutions Shift from a throw-away economy to a reduce/reuse/recycle economy Shift from a throw-away economy to a reduce/reuse/recycle economy Support local economies Support local economies Rebuild decaying infrastructure Rebuild decaying infrastructure Enhance fair trade policies Enhance fair trade policies

389 Solutions Recognize nature’s net worth Recognize nature’s net worth Calculate economic prosperity based on Genuine Progress Index or Global Happiness Index, rather than Gross Domestic Product Calculate economic prosperity based on Genuine Progress Index or Global Happiness Index, rather than Gross Domestic Product

390 Solutions Decrease energy consumption Decrease energy consumption Zero waste production systems Zero waste production systems Extended producer responsibility / Extended product liability Extended producer responsibility / Extended product liability Production-side environmentalism (reducing “planned obsolescence”) Production-side environmentalism (reducing “planned obsolescence”) Recycling laws Recycling laws

391 Solutions Restructure tax system -decrease taxes on work and savings -increase taxes on destructive activities (e.g., carbon emissions, toxic waste generation) Restructure tax system -decrease taxes on work and savings -increase taxes on destructive activities (e.g., carbon emissions, toxic waste generation) Stronger clean air and water standards Stronger clean air and water standards

392 Solutions Drink tap water Drink tap water Incredibly cheap and, in the US, almost always safe Incredibly cheap and, in the US, almost always safe Exceptions include private well water, from which 15% of Americans get their drinking water Exceptions include private well water, from which 15% of Americans get their drinking water Not regulated by Safe Drinking Water Act Not regulated by Safe Drinking Water Act 40% contaminated to some degree with arsenic, radon, nitrates 40% contaminated to some degree with arsenic, radon, nitrates

393 Solutions Eat less meat Eat less meat It takes 12 lbs of grain and 2500 gallons of water to produce one lb of hamburger It takes 12 lbs of grain and 2500 gallons of water to produce one lb of hamburger Eliminate fossil fuel industry tax breaks and subsidies Eliminate fossil fuel industry tax breaks and subsidies

394 Solutions Carpooling Carpooling Keep car longer Keep car longer > ½ of energy consumption attributable to vehicles occurs during manufacturing > ½ of energy consumption attributable to vehicles occurs during manufacturing

395 Solutions Sweden plans to be world’s first oil-free economy by 2020 Sweden plans to be world’s first oil-free economy by 2020 EU to cut CO2 emissions 20% by 2020 EU to cut CO2 emissions 20% by 2020 UK committed to 80% reduction by 2050 UK committed to 80% reduction by 2050 California mandates 25% cut in global warming gasses by 2020 California mandates 25% cut in global warming gasses by 2020 EPA to regulate carbon emissions under Clean Air Act (2009) EPA to regulate carbon emissions under Clean Air Act (2009) Climate Security Act: weaknesses include unfair “cap and trade” provisions, carbon capture and storage (CCS) Climate Security Act: weaknesses include unfair “cap and trade” provisions, carbon capture and storage (CCS)

396 Solutions Solar and wind power; appropriate biofuels (i.e., cellulosic ethanol, algal bio-diesel; not food crops), not CCS (carbon capture and storage) or nuclear Solar and wind power; appropriate biofuels (i.e., cellulosic ethanol, algal bio-diesel; not food crops), not CCS (carbon capture and storage) or nuclear CCS raises specter of Lake Chad and Lake Monoun disasters CCS raises specter of Lake Chad and Lake Monoun disasters

397 Solutions Increase tax breaks, subsidies, research for renewable energy Increase tax breaks, subsidies, research for renewable energy Renewable energy now 1% of transportation fuel market (ethanol) and 2% of the electricity market (wind, solar, biomass) Renewable energy now 1% of transportation fuel market (ethanol) and 2% of the electricity market (wind, solar, biomass)

398 Solutions Streamline EPA -25% of 14 billion superfund payouts have gone to lawyers and consultants Streamline EPA -25% of 14 billion superfund payouts have gone to lawyers and consultants Composting / Recycling organic wastes Composting / Recycling organic wastes Safe disposal of pharmaceuticals Safe disposal of pharmaceuticals Shift medical research agenda Shift medical research agenda

399 Solutions Decrease light pollution ($2 billion energy wasted per year) and see the stars! Decrease light pollution ($2 billion energy wasted per year) and see the stars! 2/3 of US population and over ½ of EU population can’t see Milky Way 2/3 of US population and over ½ of EU population can’t see Milky Way -Czechoslovakian anti-light pollution law Insulation Insulation Energy-efficient lighting Energy-efficient lighting Australia mandates use of compact fluorescent lightbulbs by 2012 Australia mandates use of compact fluorescent lightbulbs by 2012

400 Solutions Decrease excessive packaging Decrease excessive packaging 15¢/plastic bag tax in Ireland ↓’d use by 90% 15¢/plastic bag tax in Ireland ↓’d use by 90% San Francisco has outlawed plastic bags San Francisco has outlawed plastic bags Canada, China, and 4 other countries have banned Canada, China, and 4 other countries have banned Safe storage of nuclear wastes Safe storage of nuclear wastes Green electricity - $3/month Green electricity - $3/month

401 Solutions Sustainable forest management Sustainable forest management Plant trees Plant trees The average urban tree removes nearly one ton of greenhouse gas during its first 40 years of life The average urban tree removes nearly one ton of greenhouse gas during its first 40 years of life Stop receiving catalogues Stop receiving catalogues contact Direct Marketing Association contact Direct Marketing Association