2 Outline Define clinical pharmacy Differentiate between pharmacy and clinical pharmacy.Explain the qualification required for clinical pharmacistsList clinical pharmacists competencies
3 Definition of Clinical Pharmacy Clinical pharmacy is defined as that area of pharmacy concerned with the science and practice of rational medication use.ACCP, Pharmacotherapy 2008;28(6):816–817
4 The Detailed Definition Important Aspects Clinical pharmacy is a health science discipline in which pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes medication therapy and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention.ACCP, Pharmacotherapy 2008;28(6):816–817
5 The Detailed Definition Important Aspects The practice of clinical pharmacy embraces the philosophy of pharmaceutical care“Pharmaceutical care is the responsible provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve or maintain a patient’s quality of life”.This calls attention to the fact that the primary object of practice and research is ultimately the patient
6 The Detailed Definition Important Aspects Clinical pharmacy also has an obligation to contribute to the generation of new knowledge that advances health and quality of life.This means that in addition to optimizing therapy and promoting patient health, clinical pharmacy must also be engaged in research.
7 The Detailed Definition Important Aspects The clinical pharmacist cares for patients in all health care settingsThis emphasizes two points:that clinical pharmacists provide care to their patients (i.e., they don’t just provide clinical services), andthat this practice can occur in any practice settingThe term “clinical” does not necessarily imply an activity implemented in a hospital setting.
8 The Detailed Definition Important Aspects Clinical pharmacists assume responsibility & accountability for managing medication therapy in direct patient care settings, whether practicing independently or in consultation or collaboration with other health care professionals.Clinical pharmacist researchers generate, disseminate, and apply new knowledge that contributes to improved health and quality of life.
9 The Detailed Definition Important Aspects Clinical pharmacists are experts in the therapeutic use of medications.They routinely provide medication therapy evaluations and recommendations to patients and health care professionals.Clinical pharmacists are a primary source of scientifically valid information and advice regarding the safe, appropriate, and cost-effective use of medications
10 How Does Clinical Pharmacy Differ from Pharmacy ? The discipline of pharmacy embraces the knowledge of synthesis, chemistry and preparation of drugsClinical pharmacy is more oriented to the analysis of population needs with regards to medicines, ways of administration, patterns of use and drugs effects on the patients.The focus of attention moves from the drug to the single patient or population receiving drugs.
11 Goal of Clinical Pharmacy to promote the correct and appropriate use of medicinal products and devices.This is achieved by:maximising the clinical effect of medicinesminimising the risk of treatment-induced adverse eventsminimising the expenditures for pharmacological treatments.
12 How to Pursue a Profession in Clinical Pharmacy in Saudi Arabia Pharm D DegreeMaster Degree in clinical pharmacyResidency with 2 years of training
13 Clinical Pharmacist Competencies Clinical problem solving, judgment, & decision makingMonitor patients in the health care settingAssess patient-specific medical problemsEvaluate patient-specific drug therapy and therapeutic problems.Design a comprehensive drug therapy plan for patient specific problemsCollaborate with patients, caregivers, and other healthcare professionals.ACCP, Pharmacotherapy 2008;28(6):806–815
14 Clinical Pharmacist Competencies Communication and educationEducate patientsEducate other health care professionalsCommunicate effectively.Document interventions in the patient medical record.
15 Clinical Pharmacist Competencies Medical information evaluation & managementDemonstrate the motivation and commitment to become a lifelong learner.Retrieve biomedical literature using appropriate search strategies.Interpret biomedical literature with regard to study design, methodology, statistical analysis, significance of reported data, and conclusions.Integrate data obtained from multiple sources to derive an overall conclusion or answer.
16 Clinical Pharmacist Competencies Management of patient populationsPatient safety and drug therapy evaluationCritical pathways
17 Clinical Pharmacist Competencies Therapeutic knowledge areasApply disease-oriented knowledge of the following areas (anatomy, physiology, epidemiology, etc….)Demonstrate competence in the pharmacotherapy of medical problemsApply the following principles (pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacoeconomics…etc) in the setting of each disease state, patient population, and/or therapeutic category
18 Level of Action of Clinical Pharmacists Clinical pharmacy activities may influence the correct use of medicines at three different levels:before,duringand after the prescription is written.
19 A) Before the Prescription Is Written Clinical trialsFormulariesDrug informationDrug-related policies
20 B) Process of Writing the Prescription Clinical pharmacists can influence the attitudes and priorities of prescribers in their choice of correct treatments.The clinical pharmacist monitors, detects and preventsDrug related problemsThe clinical pharmacist pays special attention to the dosage of drugs which need therapeutic monitoring.Community pharmacists can also make prescription decisions directly, when over the counter drugs are counselled.
21 Drug Related Problems Untreated indications. Improper drug selection. Subtherapeutic dosage.Failure to receive medicationMedication overdosage.Adverse drug reactions.Drug interactions.Medication use without indication.
22 C) After Writing the Prescription CounsellingDrug use evaluationOutcome researchPharmacoeconomic studies
23 Clinical Pharmacy Practice Areas Ambulatory careCritical careDrug InformationGeriatrics and long –term careInternal medicine and subspecialtiesCardiologyEndocrinologyGastroenterologyInfectious diseaseNeurologyNephrologyObstetrics and gynecologyPulmonary diseasePsychiatryRheumatologyNuclear pharmacyNutritionPediatricsPharmacokineticsSurgery