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Mr. Cleon M. McLean A.P. English Ontario High School

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1 Mr. Cleon M. McLean A.P. English Ontario High School
Sonnets Mr. Cleon M. McLean A.P. English Ontario High School

2 Sonnet The term sonnet is derived from the word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning little song. By the thirteenth century, it had come to signify a poem of fourteen lines following a strict rhyme scheme and logical structure.

3 Vocabulary iamb—a metrical unit of one unstressed and one stressed syllables (in that order) meter—from the Greek word “metron,” meaning measure, a meter is a way of describing rhythmic pattern in poetry iambic pentameter—five iambs, creating a 10 syllabic line

4 Vocabulary couplet—two successive lines of poetry, usually rhymed (aa)
stanza—The natural unit of the lyric. Stanza means “room” or “stopping place” in Italian conceit—an elaborate figure of speech comparing two extremely dissimilar things ars poetica—means “poetry is the subject of the poem”

5 Vocabulary iamb—an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. E.g., ādǒre trochee—a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable. E.g., ărdōr dactyl—a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables. E.g., rădiāñt spondee—two stressed syllables. E.g., ămĕn

6 Three Types of Sonnets Petrarchan sonnet (or Italian sonnet…from the Italian poet, Petrarch)…invented before the 16th century 16th century (1485—1603) 2. Shakespearean sonnet (or Elizabethan, or English sonnet) 3. Spenserian sonnet (from the sixteenth century poet, Edmund Spenser)

7 Petrarchan sonnet parts
Fourteen lines Two sections: An octave (eight lines) A sestet (six lines) Typically, the change over from the octave to the sestet happens at the volta. Some sonnets may reverse the order of the octave and sestet, while others might have the volta occurring in the ending couplet Iambic pentameter Rhyme scheme: abba, abba…(octave) 2. cdecde, or…cdcdcd…(sestet)

8 Petrarchan sonnet The Petrarchan sonnet tends to pose a question, observation, argument, or some other answerable rhetoric in the octave, and then has a volta ( or turn) occurs in the eighth or ninth line, making the sestet the answer to the question, the clarification, or the counterargument

9 “Whoso list to hunt” by Sir Thomas Wyatt (introduced the Petrarchan sonnet style into English; posited as the inamorato of Anne Boleyn) Whoso list to hunt, I know where is an hind But as for me, alas, I may no more: The vain travail hath wearied me so sore. I am of them that farthest cometh behind; Yet may I, by no means, my wearied mind Draw from the deer, but as she fleeth afore, Fainting I follow. I leave off therefore, Since in a net I seek to hold the wind. Who list her hunt, I put him out of doubt, As well as I, may spend his time in vain. And graven with diamonds in letters plain There is written, her fair neck round about, "Noli me tangere, for Caesar's I am, And wild for to hold, though I seem tame."

10 Shakespearean sonnet Fourteen lines
A Shakespearean sonnet consists of the following: Fourteen lines Iambic pentameter (5 unstressed and 5 stressed syllables in each line) 3 quatrains: abab, cdcd, efef An ending couplet: gg Historical note: Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, created the above structure—which is now associated with Shakespeare

11 Shakespearean sonnet XXVII (27)
Weary with toil, I haste me to my bed, The dear repose for limbs with travel tired; But then begins a journey in my head To work my mind, when body's work's expired: For then my thoughts--from far where I abide-- Intend a zealous pilgrimage to thee, And keep my drooping eyelids open wide, Looking on darkness which the blind do see: Save that my soul's imaginary sight Presents thy shadow to my sightless view, Which, like a jewel hung in ghastly night, Makes black night beauteous, and her old face new. Lo! thus, by day my limbs, by night my mind, For thee, and for myself, no quiet find.

12 Spenserian sonnet Similar to the Shakespearean sonnet:
3 quatrains (with linking couplets) 1 ending couplet Rhyme scheme: abab, bcbc, cdcd (quatrains)…the colors show the “couplet link” ee (couplet)

13 Elizabeth Browning’s How do I love thee
Elizabeth Browning’s How do I love thee? (19th century example of a Spenserian sonnet) How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. I love thee to the depth and breadth and height My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight For the ends of being and ideal grace. I love thee to the level of every day's Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light. I love thee freely, as men strive for right. I love thee purely, as they turn from praise. I love thee with the passion put to use In my old griefs, and with my childhood's faith. I love thee with a love I seemed to lose With my lost saints. I love thee with the breath, Smiles, tears, of all my life; and, if God choose, I shall but love thee better after death.

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