# Chapter 13 Vibrations and Waves.

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Chapter 13 Vibrations and Waves

Periodic motion Periodic (harmonic) motion – self-repeating motion
Oscillation – periodic motion in certain direction Period (T) – a time duration of one oscillation Frequency (f) – the number of oscillations per unit time, SI unit of frequency 1/s = Hz (Hertz) Heinrich Hertz ( )

Motion of the spring-mass system
Hooke’s law: The force always acts toward the equilibrium position: restoring force The mass is initially pulled to a distance A and released from rest As the object moves toward the equilibrium position, F and a decrease, but v increases

Motion of the spring-mass system
At x = 0, F and a are zero, but v is a maximum The object’s momentum causes it to overshoot the equilibrium position The force and acceleration start to increase in the opposite direction and velocity decreases The motion momentarily comes to a stop at x = - A

Motion of the spring-mass system
It then accelerates back toward the equilibrium position The motion continues indefinitely The motion of a spring mass system is an example of simple harmonic motion

Simple harmonic motion
Simple harmonic motion – motion that repeats itself and the displacement is a sinusoidal function of time

Amplitude Amplitude – the magnitude of the maximum displacement (in either direction)

Phase

Phase constant

Angular frequency

Period

Velocity of simple harmonic motion

Acceleration of simple harmonic motion

The force law for simple harmonic motion
From the Newton’s Second Law: For simple harmonic motion, the force is proportional to the displacement Hooke’s law:

Energy in simple harmonic motion
Potential energy of a spring: Kinetic energy of a mass:

Energy in simple harmonic motion

Energy in simple harmonic motion

Chapter 13 Problem 11 A simple harmonic oscillator has a total energy E. (a) Determine the kinetic and potential energies when the displacement is one-half the amplitude. (b) For what value of the displacement does the kinetic energy equal the potential energy?

Pendulums Simple pendulum: Restoring torque:
From the Newton’s Second Law: For small angles

Pendulums Simple pendulum: On the other hand

Pendulums Simple pendulum:

Pendulums Physical pendulum:

Chapter 13 Problem 32 An aluminum clock pendulum having a period of 1.00 s keeps perfect time at 20.0°C. (a) When placed in a room at a temperature of –5.0°C, will it gain time or lose time? (b) How much time will it gain or lose every hour?

Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion
Simple harmonic motion is the projection of uniform circular motion on the diameter of the circle in which the circular motion occurs

Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion
Simple harmonic motion is the projection of uniform circular motion on the diameter of the circle in which the circular motion occurs

Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion
Simple harmonic motion is the projection of uniform circular motion on the diameter of the circle in which the circular motion occurs

Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion
Simple harmonic motion is the projection of uniform circular motion on the diameter of the circle in which the circular motion occurs

Damped simple harmonic motion
Damping force Damping constant

Forced oscillations and resonance
Swinging without outside help – free oscillations Swinging with outside help – forced oscillations If ωd is a frequency of a driving force, then forced oscillations can be described by: Resonance:

Forced oscillations and resonance
Tacoma Narrows Bridge disaster (1940)

Wave motion A wave is the motion of a disturbance
All waves carry energy and momentum

Types of waves Mechanical – governed by Newton’s laws and exist in a material medium (water, air, rock, ect.) Electromagnetic – governed by electricity and magnetism equations, may exist without any medium Matter – governed by quantum mechanical equations

Types of waves Depending on the direction of the displacement relative to the direction of propagation, we can define wave motion as: Transverse – if the direction of displacement is perpendicular to the direction of propagation Longitudinal – if the direction of displacement is parallel to the direction of propagation

Types of waves Depending on the direction of the displacement relative to the direction of propagation, we can define wave motion as: Transverse – if the direction of displacement is perpendicular to the direction of propagation Longitudinal – if the direction of displacement is parallel to the direction of propagation

Superposition of waves
Superposition principle – overlapping waves algebraically add to produce a resultant (net) wave Overlapping solutions of the linear wave equation do not in any way alter the travel of each other

Sinusoidal waves One of the most characteristic solutions of the linear wave equation is a sinusoidal wave: A – amplitude, φ – phase constant

Wavelength “Freezing” the solution at t = 0 we obtain a sinusoidal function of x: Wavelength λ – smallest distance (parallel to the direction of wave’s travel) between repetitions of the wave shape

Wave number On the other hand: Angular wave number: k = 2π / λ

Angular frequency Considering motion of the point at x = 0
we observe a simple harmonic motion (oscillation) : For simple harmonic motion: Angular frequency ω

Frequency, period Definitions of frequency and period are the same as for the case of rotational motion or simple harmonic motion: Therefore, for the wave velocity

Wave velocity v is a constant and is determined by the properties of the medium E.g., for a stretched string with linear density μ = m/l under tension T

Chapter 13 Problem 41 A harmonic wave is traveling along a rope. It is observed that the oscillator that generates the wave completes 40.0 vibrations in 30.0 s. Also, a given maximum travels 425 cm along the rope in 10.0 s. What is the wavelength?

Interference of waves Interference – a phenomenon of combining waves, which follows from the superposition principle Considering two sinusoidal waves of the same amplitude, wavelength, and direction of propagation The resultant wave:

Interference of waves If φ = 0 (Fully constructive)
If φ = π (Fully destructive) If φ = 2π/3 (Intermediate)

Reflection of waves at boundaries
Within media with boundaries, solutions to the wave equation should satisfy boundary conditions. As a results, waves may be reflected from boundaries Hard reflection – a fixed zero value of deformation at the boundary – a reflected wave is inverted Soft reflection – a free value of deformation at the boundary – a reflected wave is not inverted

Questions?

Chapter 13 Problem 2 1.1 × 102 N The graph is a straight line passing through the origin with slope equal to k = 1.0 × 103 N/m.

Chapter 13 Problem 8 575 N/m 46.0 J