Presentation on theme: "RESEARCH QUESTIONS, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES"— Presentation transcript:
1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES CHAPTER FOURRESEARCH QUESTIONS, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
2 WHERE DO I GET MY RESEARCH TOPIC? Possible sources include:Existing sport literature.Literature from other disciplines.Social concerns.Popular issues.Your own history and personal characteristics.Your tutors.
3 MAKING THE QUESTION ORIGINAL Research is adding to knowledge, so if someone has already researched the topic, how do you make it original? Veal (2006) has some suggestions:Geographically. Certain theories may have been tested in one area but have not received the same attention elsewhere. Thus, you may find research focused on sport in the USA. Undertaking similar research in the UK would provide you with the basis for an original study.
4 Socially. You may find that certain social groups have not received as much attention as others. Existing work may focus exclusively upon men, and exclude women, or you may find a certain theory that has not been applied to the elderly, or to the physically disabled for example.
5 Temporally. A theory may have been developed a number of years ago, thus its relevance in contemporary society could be investigated. Comparing the findings would be an original study in itself. You may also come across a study that took place some years ago. Collecting more up to date data may also form the basis for an original project.
6 Contextually. You may find existing theories from outside the field of sport studies that have yet to be applied to the sport context. Alternatively, you could revisit existing research using new theories and assess whether such theories have greater explanatory power.
7 Methodologically. You could collect different data to explore a phenomenon. An example may be if you find a theory that has been tested quantitatively, and apply a qualitative research design, or if you collect data using in-depth interviews rather than questionnaire surveys.
8 FOCUSING YOUR RESEARCH QUESTION 1. Define your core concepts.2. What is your time frame?3. What is the geographical location?4. What aspect of the topic are you interested in?5. What is your unit of analysis (i.e. the ‘thing’ that you collect data about and from which you draw conclusions)?
9 FOCUSING A RESEARCH QUESTION Do coaches have different leadership styles depending upon whether they are coaching team or individual sports?MaleFemaleWhich sport?ProfessionalAmateurEliteNon-eliteNoviceExperiencedMaleFemaleSeniorsJuniorsAdultDo experienced male amateur coaches have different leadership styles depending upon whether they are coaching team or individual non-elite female junior sport?
10 ASSESSING THE FEASIBILITY OF A QUESTION Is the question of the appropriate complexity?Do you have access to required data, background etc.?Are there any specialist facilities and resources required?Do you have the required expertise?
11 WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL Include:A clear statement of the overall aims and objectives of the research.A statement outlining the originality and importance of the research.A brief description of existing work in the area.How the research is to be conducted, the research design to be adopted, anticipated methods and indication of the sample group, sample size and recruitment methods.
12 5. How the data collected are to be analysed. 6. The anticipated time scale for the research.7. The anticipated outcomes of the research.8. Any specific requirements in terms of access, financial requirements, etc.9. Any ethical issues that may be relevant to the study.
13 WEAKNESSES IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS 1. The research problemThe problem is of insufficient importance or unlikely to produce any new or useful information.The hypothesis upon which the research is based is unsound, or is not based on any existing evidence.The problem is more complex than the investigator appears to realise.The research is overly complex, with too many elements.
14 2. The approachThe proposed methods are not suitable to achieve the research objectives.The description of the approach lacks specificity and clarity.The research design has not been carefully considered.The statistical aspects/details of the means by which qualitative data are to be analysed have not received sufficient attention.
15 3. Personal characteristics The researcher does not have adequate experience or ability to undertake such a project.The researcher seems unfamiliar with recent or important work in the area.
16 SUMMARY1. The first stage of the research process is to identify a research topic for investigation. This can be a difficult task, but it is important to the success of the subsequent research project.2. There are a number of sources of ideas for research topics, the main ones being existing literature, social concerns and popular issues, personal characteristics and preferences, brainstorming, and debate with your tutor.
17 3. Although some degree of originality is desirable, the extent of this originality is often overestimated. There are a number of ways by which research can be seen to be original.4. The topic should lead to a focused question, which forms the ‘vertical thread’ of the research.5. Answering the research question must be achievable, in terms of the personal abilities of the researcher, access to an appropriate sample, and the availability of any specialist resources or equipment.