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ACID-BASE THEORIES SECTION 20.3 Arrhenius acids : hydrogen-containing compounds that ionize to yield H + in aqueous solution. HCl + H 2 O --> H 3 O + +

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Presentation on theme: "ACID-BASE THEORIES SECTION 20.3 Arrhenius acids : hydrogen-containing compounds that ionize to yield H + in aqueous solution. HCl + H 2 O --> H 3 O + +"— Presentation transcript:

1 ACID-BASE THEORIES SECTION 20.3 Arrhenius acids : hydrogen-containing compounds that ionize to yield H + in aqueous solution. HCl + H 2 O --> H 3 O + + Cl - Arrhenius bases: compounds that ionize to yield OH - in aqueous solution 2Na + 2H 2 O --> NaOH + H 2

2 A few terms… Monoprotic acids: contain 1 ionizable hydrogen Nitric Acid HNO 3 Diprotic acids : contain 2 ionizable hydrogens Sulfuric Acid H 2 SO 4 Triprotic acids : contain 3 ionizable hydrogens Phosphoric Acid H 3 PO 4

3 Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Acid : hydrogen-ion donor Base : hydrogen-ion acceptor NH 3 + H 2 O NH OH - Hydrogen-ion Hydrogen-ion Ammonium ion acceptor donor

4 Conjugate Acid & Base Conjugate Acid : particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion Conjugate Base : particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion NH 3 + H 2 O NH OH - Base Acid Conjugate Conjugate Acid Base Amphoteric: substance that acts as both an acid & a base Examples: H 2 O, HSO4 - (Hydrogen Sulfate Ion)

5 Lewis Acid & Base Lewis Acid : substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond. Lewis Base: substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond. H + + OH - --> H 2 O Lewis Lewis Acid Base


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