Presentation on theme: "Brand name and Brand image between Linguistics and Marketing"— Presentation transcript:
1Brand name and Brand image between Linguistics and Marketing Prof. Dr. Paola Cotticelli-KurrasDott.ssa Vania VigoloDott. Alfredo Trovato
21. Conceptual FrameworkSince the end of the ’70s, several studies have analysed the effective role of language in the creation of brand-names.Current works suggest that these linguistic features affect how consumers perceive and also respond to various marketing stimuli (i.e. advertising or brand names).The creation of a good brand name may be accomplished by several devices, concerning the interaction between what the brand “means” as well as what the brand “designates” (Robertson 1989: 66).
31.1. A study of Italian brand naming: the linguistic analysis Cotticelli-Kurras (2007)(Die Entwicklung der hybriden Wortschöpfungen bei den italienischen Markennamen)Cotticelli-Kurras 2009(La struttura morfologica dei marchionimi italiani nel XX secolo [fino agli anni ‘80])Cotticelli-Kurras forthcoming(Assoziationen italienischer Markennamen im 20. Jahrhundert)Ronneberger-Sibold 2009(Die morphologische Struktur deutscher Markennamen: diachrone Entwicklungen im Laufe des 20. Jahrhunderts)Ronneberger-Sibold forthcoming(Markennamen als (Zerr-)Spiegel gesellschaftlichen Wertewandels in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts)Zilg (2006)(Markennamen im italienischen Lebensmittelmarkt)
41.2. The method Our questions: The first phase of the work implies the preliminary individuation of the linguistic dimensionsinvolved in the analysis of the data.Our questions:1. Which are the linguistic strategies employed in order to show how Lush Italy “worked” to present his products?2. What are the effects and from which linguistic levels does the message reach the consumers?
51.3. The case-study “10 ANNI INSIEME” [Special edition 1999-2009] EDIZIONE SPECIALE[Special edition ]
61.3.1. The corpus The Corpus: 251 product names 168 Italian names; 76 foreign names;7 hybrid forms.
112.1.2. Phonetic Level Vanilla Pizzi The name of Nilla Pizzi, a famous singer in post-Second-World-War Italyis hiddenin the product nameVanilla Pizzi[Dusting Powder].
122.1.3. Phonetic Level The title of Luciano Ligabue's song Bambolina e Barracuda“Little doll and Barracuda”becomesFragolina e Barracuda “Strawberry and barracuda”[Shower Gel].
132.1.4. Phonetic Level: To sum up Strategies:Simple substitution of one letter in the name, often as a minimal pair, but with great associative value to the reference world or common knowledge in both Italian and foreign names.
152.2.1. Morphological level New forms: M’assaggiami [Massage Bar] this is massaggiami, i.e. ‘massage me’,but it is written m(a) assaggia-mi, i.e. ‘but taste me’.Aromantica and Aromantico [Deodorants]are a variation from Italian aromatico, i.e. aromatic,but they suggest a romantic note!Belli Capelli [Hair Treatment]is a rhyme, but a wrong Italian form; correctly it should be bei capelli in theattributive position of the adjective (note, predicative position: i capelli sono belli)
162.2.2. Morphological Level: To sum up From a morphological point of view,the strategies of naming showthe use of word plays,which involveexisting words or sentencesto expressthe desired effects and benefitsof the products.
172.3. Lexical level: which languages are employed?
182.3.1. Lexical level 251 product names: 168 Italian names, 7 mixed forms (hybrid),58 English names,4 Spanish names,3 Latin names,2 French names,9 names from other languages.
126.96.36.199. English names Under the English 58 names we find: - Personal names:Candy Candy [Soap],Fred [Soap],Marilyn [Hair Treatment],- Names from movies, songs and book titles:Stardust [Bath Bomb],Pretty Woman [Bubble Bar],Blade Runner [Shaving Cream],CompoundsSexxx Bomb [Bath Bomb],Adjectival phrases:- Green Day [Bubble Bath],Prepositional phrases:- Strawberry feels for ever [Massage Bar],
20Hybrid /mixed namesOnly 7 names belong to this category; most of them show a consistent language mixture in the structure of adjectival phrases :Fresh Farmacy [Cleanser],Karma Kream [Body Cream],Questione di Peeling [Scrubbing],Toda la Noce [Massage Bar],Vellutata Dream [Smoothie Shower Soap],Vaporosa Candy [Dusting Powder],Macho Man [Gift Box].
188.8.131.52. Other Languages - Nirvana [Face Cream], - Mata Hari [Bubble Bar],- Shangri La [Face Cream],- Aisha [Face Mask],- Gurugu [Body Cream],- Geisha [Cleanser]
184.108.40.206. French names 2 instances a film title: Chocolat [Face Mask]; a geographical name:Mont Blanc [Bath Melt].
242.3.1.6. Latin names Supernova [Bath Bomb], used as special terminology for a type of star;Dulcis in Fundo [Body Cream], a typical formulaic phrase often used in Italian to express ‘Finally…’;Imperialis [Body Cream],for a ‘high-class’ product.
252.3.1.7. Lexical Level: To sum up Lush-Italy employs several foreign languages(English, French, Spanish) in the naming process,aiming to express often exotic and exciting aspects, especially from other countries,They create new names, different from those in English,They often use often names of very well known persons.
262.4. Semantic Level Connotative Meaning Denotative Meaning Key attributesNameProductCategoryConsumer
272.4.1. Transferring product names across borders ForeignCountryCountry ofOriginLoss ofsourcemeaningAcquisitionofnew meaning
282.4.2. Semantic Level In the English Lush’s web-catalogue the product nameYou snap the whip[Body Scrub]is described as follows:“is a term maybe more familiar to a sadomasochist, so it fits with the hard-core, pleasure/pain image”.The same product in the Italian line is named Magia Nera “Black Magic”: The sexual reference is completely lost in the Italian context.In this case, only the “enchanting/magic” effectof the scrubbing product has been underlined.
292.4.3. Semantic Level The English lemon soap Bohemian, in relation to marginalized and impoverished artists or musicians, who “didn't afford a hot bath very often”corresponds to the Italian product nameConosci la Terra Dove i Limoni Profumano?“Knowest thouthe land wherethe lemon trees bloom?”(Goethe)
302.4.4. Names from everyday modern life: cinemas, songs, senses Italian NameSinger (Year)ProductOriginal English NameRicominciamo“Let’s start again!”A. Pappalardo (1979)[Massage Bar]Heavanilli(Heaven + Vanilla)Splendido Splendente“Splendid Shining”D. Rettore (1979)Shimmy Shimmy(a class of modern dance)Ma che bontà! Ma che bontà!“What a taste! What a taste!”Mina (1977)[Butter Cream]Heavenly bodiesBuonanotte Fiorellino“Goodnight little flower!”F. De Gregori (1975)[Bubble Bar]Amandopondo(nonsense)
312.4.5. Movie titles in the naming process Movie titles in the naming processItalian NameDirector (Year)ProductOriginalEnglish NameParadiso all’Improvviso“Paradise suddenly”Pieraccioni (2003)[Moisturiser]Paradise regainedTi spezio in due“I break you”from Rocky IVStallone (1985)[Massage Bar]Wicky Magic MuscleLa febbre delSabato sera“Saturday night Fever”Badham (1977)[Body Cream]Something wickedA qualcunopiace caldo“Some like it hot”Wilder (1959)[Soap]Spice curls SoapAtollo 13 < Apollo 13“Apollo 13”Howard (1995)[Shower Gel]Rub Rub Rub!Il Signore dei Granelli <Il Signore degli Anelli“The Lord of the Rings”Jackson (2002)Porridge SoapEra glaciale“Ice Age”Cartoon MovieWilson (2002)Ice Blue
322.4.6. “English” names of Italian products compared “English” names of Italian products comparedEnglish Namesin ItalyProductOriginal Namesin EnglandPeach and Love[Massage Bar]Each PeachI love meSoft CoeurShining[Hair Conditioner]VeganeseFred[Soap]Demon in the DarkDorian Gray[Liquid Shampoo]DaddyoThank God it’s Friday[Bath Bomb]AvobathThank God it’s BigAvoBigBath
332.4.7. Semantic Level: To sum up The chosen names embody social and cultural elements, which bring to mind some key attributes encoded by the advertisers.The semantic referent of the product name changes in relation to the cultural and behavioural differences between countries.The names testify to the great degree of linguistic work behind the Italian Lush names
343. Marketing approach: What king of brand image does Lush try to convey? What is a brand?What does brand image consist of?Lush case study: communication strategies for the creation of brand image34
35The legal term for brand is trademark. 3.1 What is a brand?“A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers.The legal term for brand is trademark.A brand may identify one item, a family of items, or all items of that seller”American Marketing Association
36American Marketing Association 3.2 Brand image“The perception of a brand in the minds of persons. The brand image is a mirror reflection … of the brand personality or product being. It is what people believe about a brand, their thoughts, feelings, expectations”.American Marketing Association
37BRAND IMAGE BRAND ASSOCIATIONS Keller, 1993; Aaker, 1992 Country of originCommunicationBrand name
383.3 A wider definition of brand “A brand isa customer experiencerepresented bya collection of images and ideas”American Marketing Association
393.4 CASE STUDY: LUSH A MANAGERIAL APPROACH Founded in Poole (UK) in 1995Beauty conceptNatural and environmental principles “beauty delis” hand-made, natural and fresh productsNo testing on animalsInternational dimension (510 stores worlwide)Products have names that are likely to make you smile
413.4.2 Lush communication NOT ONLY ADVERTISING! WEB SITE CATALOGUE POINT OF PURCHASE
423.4.3. Lush Times: the catalogue Suggestions on how to use the products and when EXPERIENCE DIMENSIONe.g. “Do you ever overdo it a bit and don’t really want to get up in the morning? Then keep these in stock” (Emotionbmbs)
43On the labelINGREDIENTS (what fresh organic fruits and vegetables and essential oils go into each product)WHO MADE IT!Crafstmanship approach
45is a “kid-in-a-candy-store” feeling Wandering around Lush….is a “kid-in-a-candy-store” feeling“HEDONIC CONSUMPTION”
463.5.1 The point of purchase concept “cosmetic grocery”, “food retailer”soap is carved up on butchers’blocks, priced by weight, wrapped in greaseproof paper and sold with “best before” dates;market-type display of soaps in chunks of different sizes, like a vegetable market, and you can slice off the amount you want
473.5.2. To package or not to package? No packaging“we prefer to spend our money on the ingredients”SENSORY STIMULI
483.6 Lush brand image: associations aroused by SENSORY DIMENSION:smell, sight, but also hearing and touch, references to taste) “HEDONIC CONSUMPTION” DIMENSION (Holbrook, Hirschman, 1982) EXPERIENTIAL DIMENSION, both within and outside the shop (Pine, Gilmore, 1999; Schmitt, 1999) AMUSEMENT DIMENSION (“brand names should make you smile” the 6th sense: the sense of humour)
493.7 Marketing considerations on the purchasing process Price is higher than for other brands in the same product categoryImpulse purchase (unplanned or spontaneous) and giftsSensory dimensions is lost in the website/catalogue selling
504. ConclusionsLush Italy worked hard to create the Italian product namesItalian is the most-employed language;Language strategies are very simple but successful;Phonetic effects and morphological structures play with specific associations and suggest other concepts;The associations stimulated by the brand names come from everyday life, especially from cinema, songs, common knowledgeThe phonetic level suggests a sensory experienceThe semantic level conveys visual associations (images from films, songs etc.) dreamworld dimension50
514. Conclusions OXYMORONIC COMPANY For brand name characteristics and communication strategies, Lush could be defined as anOXYMORONIC COMPANYEthical issues vs. sensory dimensionHand-made, craftsmanlike products vs. internationalization strategies
535. BibliographyBao Y. – Shao T.A. – Rivers D. (2008), “Creating new Brand Names: Effects of Relevance, Connotation, and Pronunciation”, Journal of Advertising Research March, ppChisnall P.M. (1974), “Aluminium Household Foil in the Common Market: Research for an Effective Brand Name”. Journal of Management Studies 11/3, ppCotticelli Kurras P. (2007), “Die Entwicklung der hybriden Wortschöpfungen bei den italienischen Markennamen”, in L. Kremer - E. Ronneberger-Sibold (eds.), International Symposium Names in the Economy and in Economical History, Antwerpen, June 2006, Berlin: Logos, ppCotticelli Kurras P. (2008), “Alla ricerca della parola perfetta: la morfologia al servizio della pubblicità”, in G. Sandrini (ed.), Studi in onore di G. Lonardi. Verona: Fiorini, ppCotticelli Kurras P. (2009), “La struttura morfologica dei marchionimi italiani nel XX secolo (fino agli anni ‘80)”, in M.G. Arcamone et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the XXth International Congress on Onomastic Sciences, Sezione 2, Pisa, August 28 - September 4, 2005 (ICOS), Pisa: ETS, ppCotticelli Kurras P. (forthcoming), “Assoziationen italienischer Markennamen im 20. Jahrhundert”, in Names in the Economy 2, An International Symposium at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Wien, Juni 2007.Fraccaroli, V. (2009), “Analisi linguistica diacronica dei marchionimi italiani dall’inizio del Novecento agli anni Ottanta”, in M.G. Arcamone et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the 22nd International Congress on Onomastic Sciences, Pisa, August 28 - September 4, 2005 (ICOS), Sezione 2, Pisa: ETS, ppHeath T. – Chatterjee S.-France K.R. (1980), “Using the Phonemes of Bran Names to Symbolize Brand Attributes”. Proceedings of the American Marketing Association 3, pp53
54Kohli C. – LaBahn D. (1997), “Observations: Creating effective brand names: A study of the naming process”, Journal of Advertising Research January-February, ppKlink R.R. (2001), “Creating Meaningful New Brand Names: a Study of Semantics and Sound Symbolism”, Journal of Marketing: Theory and Practice Spring, ppLeclerc F. – Schmitt B.H. – Dubé L. (1994), “Foreign Branding and Its Effects on Product Perceptions and Attitudes”, Journal of Marketing Research XXXI, ppLowrey T.M. – Shrum L.J. – Dubitsky T.M. (2003), “The relation between brand-name linguistic characteristics and brand-name memory”, Journal of Advertising Research Fall, ppMcNeal J.U. – Zeren L.M.(1981), “Brand name selection for consumer products”, MSU Business Topics, Spring, ppMeyers-Levy J. (1989), “The Influence of Brand Name’s Association Set Size and Word Frequency on Brand Memory”, Journal of Consumer Research 16, ppNilsen D.L.F. (1979). “Language Play in Advertising: Linguistic Invention in Product Naming”, in J. Alatis and R. Tucker (eds.), Language in Public Life. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.Paba S. (1986), “ ‘Brand naming’ as an entry strategy in the European white goods industry”, Cambridge Journal of Economics 10,Pavia T.M. – Costa J.A. (1993), “The Winning Number: Consumer Perceptions of Alpha-Numeric Brand Names”, Journal of Marketing 57, ppPeterson R.A. – Ross I. (1972), “How to Name New Brands”, Journal of Advertising Research 12/6, ppPetty R.D. (2008a), “Naming name: Trademark strategy and beyond. Part one- Selecting a brand name”, Brand Management 15/3, pp54
55Petty R. D. (2008b), “Naming name: Trademark strategy and beyond Petty R.D. (2008b), “Naming name: Trademark strategy and beyond. Part two- Dealing with rival a brand names”, Brand Management 15/4, ppRobertson K.R. (1989), “Strategically desiderable brand name characteristics”, The Journal of Consumer Marketing 6/4, ppRonneberger-Sibold E. (2005), “Apollo, Boccaccio und Lady Godiva: Europäische Fremdsprachen in deutschen Markennamen in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts”, in B. Glaser-H. Schnackertz (eds.), Europa interdisziplinär Probleme und Perspektiven heutiger Europastudien, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, ppRonneberger-Sibold E. (2009), „Die morphologische Struktur deutscher Markennamen: diachrone Entwicklungen im Laufe des 20. Jahrhundert“, in M.G. Arcamone et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the XXth International Congress on Onomastic Sciences, Sezione 2, Pisa, August 28 - September 4, 2005, Pisa: ETS, ppRonneberger-Sibold E. (forthcoming), „Markennamen als (Zerr-)Spiegel gesellschaftlichen Wertewandels in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts“, in B. Dumiche- H. Klöden (eds.), Werbung und Werbesprache. Wilhelmsfeld: Egert.Schloss I. (1989), “Chickens and Pickles”, Journal of Advertising Research 21/6, ppSenn S. (1999), “The Effects of Brand Name Suggestiveness and Decision Goal on the Development of Brand Knowledge”, Journal of Consumer Psychology 8/4, ppShipley D.-Hooley G.J.-Wallace S. (1988), “The brand name development process”, International Journal of Advertising, vol. 7, pp55
56Tolley C. (2007), “Trascending Trendiness: Naming your Brand for Today’s Market”, Guide to Branding: A Supplement to Pharmaceutical Executive, ppUsunier J.C. - Shaner J. (2002), “Using linguistics for creating better International brand names”, Jorunal of Marketing Communications 8, ppVanden Bergh B.-Adler K.-Oliver L. (1987), “Linguistic Distinction Among Top Brand Names”, Journal of Advertising Research, 24 (August-September), ppYorkston E. – Menon G. (2004), “A Sound Idea: Phonetic Effects of Brand Names on Consumer Judgements”, Journal of Consumer Research 31, ppWalle A.H. (1997), “Global behaviour, unique responses: consumption within cultural frameworks”, Managemenet decision 35/10, ppZilg, A. (2006), Markennamen im italienischen Lebensmittelmarkt, Pro Lingua, Bd. 41, Wilhelmsfeld: Gottfried Egert Verlag.Zinkhan G.M.-Marty C.R. (1987), “New Brand Names and Inferential Beliefs: Some Insights on Naming New Product”, Journal of Business Research, 15, pp