2 WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF ATTITUDE IN WORKPLACE? What is Attitude?WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF ATTITUDE IN WORKPLACE?
3 AttitudesCognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude.AttitudesEvaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events.Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
5 In organizations, attitudes are important for their behavioral component
6 Components of Attitude Cognitive = evaluationMy supervisor gave a promotion to a coworker who deserved it less than me. My supervisor is unfair.Cognition, affect and behavior are closely related.Negative attitude toward supervisorAffective = feelingI dislike my supervisor!Behavioral = actionI am looking for other work; I’ve complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen.
7 Research on AttitudeEarly research on attitudes assumed that they were causally related to behavior. Attitudes determine what they do.Festinger (late 1960s) –Attitudes follow behavior and people contradict what they say and do.
8 The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.Desire to reduce dissonanceImportance of elements creating dissonanceDegree of individual influence over elementsRewards involved in dissonance
9 Measuring the A-B Relationship Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account.Moderating VariablesImportance of the attitudeSpecificity of the attitudeAccessibility of the attitudeSocial pressures on the individualDirect experience with the attitude
10 Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred.
11 Major Job AttitudesJob Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job.Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth.Indian Automobile Industry found that their exists positive correlation between job involvement and job satisfaction.Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization.
12 Perceived Organizational Support (POS) The degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well being.Employee EngagementAn individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with and enthusiasm for, the work.Eg – Caterpillar’s employee engagement initiative resulted in 80-% drop in grievances and 34% increase in highly satisfied customers.
13 An Application: Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization.
15 Attitudes and Workforce Diversity Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity:Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions.Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds.Exploring print and visual media that recount and portray diversity issues.
16 Job Satisfaction Measuring Job Satisfaction Single global ratingSummation scoreHow Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?Job satisfaction declined to 50.4% in 2002Decline attributed to:Pressures to increase productivity and meet tighter deadlinesLess control over work
17 The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance Satisfaction and ProductivitySatisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive.Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.Satisfaction and AbsenteeismSatisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.Satisfaction and TurnoverSatisfied employees are less likely to quit.Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers.
18 How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction ExitBehavior directed toward leaving the organization.VoiceActive and constructive attempts to improve conditions.LoyaltyPassively waiting for conditions to improve.NeglectAllowing conditions to worsen.
19 Responses to Job Dissatisfaction Source: C. Rusbult and D. Lowery, “When Bureaucrats Get the Blues,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 15, no. 1, 1985:83. Reprinted with permission.
20 Job Satisfaction and OCB Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.
21 Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because:They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive.They are less likely to turnover which helps build long-term customer relationships.They are experienced.Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction.