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Light and Geometric OpticsUNIT 4 Light and Geometric Optics Chapter 10: Light and Reflection Chapter 11: Refraction Chapter 12:Lenses and Lens Technology 1
CHAPTER 10 Light and Reflection In this chapter, you will:describe examples of technologies that use light describe and explain a variety of sources of light explain how technologies that use light benefit society investigate the laws of reflection using plane and curved mirrors predict both quantitatively and qualitatively, the characteristics of images in plane and curved mirrors analyze a technological device that uses properties of light Copyright © 2010 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
Growing Slime (Page 401) Attempt to explain how glow-in-the-dark substances like the slime you make in this activity absorb and then give off light. How might your understanding of electrons help explain what you observed? Copyright © 2010 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
10.1 Sources and Nature of Light(Page 403) There are many sources of light, both natural and artificial. All sources of light must absorb some form of energy that raises the atoms in the substance to an excited state. These excited atoms then release energy, often in the form of light. Natural Sources: Fluorescent Zebrafish Sun Artificial Source: Incandescent Light Bulb Copyright © 2010 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
Sources of Light (Pages 404) Hydrogen atoms in the Sun’s core collide and fuse to form helium. This fusion reaction releases vast amounts of energy. Incandescent Light is light emitted from a material because it is at a high temperature. An incandescent light bulb has a tiny tungsten wire that gets very hot when an electric current runs through it. Bulbs in streetlights emit light from a gas or vapour instead of a heated wire. This process is called electric discharge. Copyright © 2010 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
Fluorescence (Page 405) Fluorescence describes light that is emitted during exposure of the source to ultraviolet light. In a fluorescent light bulb, a powdery substance called phosphor emits visible light when it is bombarded by ultraviolet light produced by excited mercury atoms. Copyright © 2010 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
Efficiency of Fluorescent Lighting(Page 406) Fluorescent light bulbs use less electricity and last longer, making them more energy efficient than incandescent bulbs. A variety of uses for fluorescent light are illustrated on the right. Copyright © 2010 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
Types of Luminescence (Page 407) Luminescence is light generated without heating the object. The energy used to excite the atoms comes from a variety of sources. Phosphorescence is a type of luminescence. Many glow-in-the-dark objects contain phosphorescent materials. The excited atoms may retain energy for several minutes or up to a few hours. Chemiluminescence is light that is generated by the energy released in a chemical reaction without a rise in temperature. Copyright © 2010 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
Bioluminescence (Page 407) Bioluminescence is light that is produced by a biochemical reaction in a living organism. Several examples of bioluminescent organisms are illustrated on the right. Copyright © 2010 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
The Nature of Light (Page 409) Light is the only form of energy that can travel like a wave through empty space and through some materials. Light waves are called electromagnetic waves. Similar to water waves, light waves involve the movement of energy from one point to another. These waves are invisible and can travel through a vacuum. (This means they do not require particles of matter in order to move.) The waves travel at 3 x 108 m/s (the speed of light). A wavelength is the distance from one crest (or trough) to the next. Copyright © 2010 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum(Page 409) The electromagnetic spectrum is a diagram that illustrates the range, or spectrum, of electromagnetic waves, in order of wavelength or frequency. The frequency of a wave represents the number of crests (or troughs) that pass a given point in one second. Copyright © 2010 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
Concepts to be reviewed:Section 10.1 Review (Page 410) Concepts to be reviewed: incandescence and how incandescent light is produced luminescence and examples of luminescent light light and how is it transmitted the electromagnetic spectrum Copyright © 2010 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
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