Presentation on theme: "Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I."— Presentation transcript:
Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I
New words can be created through INFLECTION > free morpheme + suffix DERIVATION > free morpheme + affix COMPUNDING > free morpheme + free morpheme
WORD FORMATION COMPOUNDING > package holiday CONVERSION > progress (N)/to progress (V) BLENDING > motor + hotel > motel ACRONYMS > laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) BACKFORMATION > to babysit babysitter CLIPPING > bus (omnibus), fax (facsimile)… BORROWING > pasta, shampoo, zebra…
One way of imposing order on the thousands of lexemes that make up the English vocabulary is to see lexicon in terms of structure. A well-established model of lexical structure makes us think of words as being related along two intersecting dimensions: HORIZONTAL (i.e. SYNTAGMATIC) VERTICAL (i.e. paradigmatic)
In the vocabulary of any language words are linked together into a sort of gigantic spiders web whose organizing principles are SYNTAGMATIC (HORIZONTAL) relations and PARADIGMATIC (VERTICAL) : Sense Relations > paradigmatic: synonymy/antonymy/hyponymy Lexical Relations > syntagmatic : collocation
COLLOCATION You shall now a word by the company it keeps… J.R.Firth Collocation can be defined as a friendship between words, i.e. the tendency of words to co-occur in language
SPEND MONEY TIME Collocation
Collocation > translation problems lavarsi i denti to brush (NOT wash) ones teeth mangiarsi le unghie to bite (NOT eat) ones nails
COLLOCATES of scenery (from the British National Corpus) WORD # TIMES NEARBY TOTAL IN CORPUS 1 BEAUTIFUL SPECTACULAR DRAMATIC MAGNIFICENT BREATHTAKING STUNNING COASTAL WILD GOOD WONDERFUL ALPINE SUPERB IMPRESSIVE FANTASTIC BEST UNSPOILT PASSING NATIONAL MOUNTAINOUS RUGGED 6 352
Translation problems Immersi nella natura… - immeresed in nature? -surrounded by nature?
surrounded by * countryside
COMPOUNDS/MULTI-WORD UNITS compounds > word + word (+ word …) -solid -hyphenated -open multi-word units > complete units of meaning which represent single lexical items -idioms -lexical phases
COMPOUNDS SOLID > lifeboat, honeymoon, moonlight HYPHENATED > life-threatening, single-handedly OPEN > life jacket, urban tourism, package tour
COMPOUNDS disk operating system repetitive strain injury Dutch elm disease anti-lock braking system
MULTI-WORD UNITS Idioms > easily recognized because: -you cannot change the order of words -you cannot replace a word -you cannot omit a word -you cannot change grammatical structure
Bread and butter I have bread and butter with my soup. (LITERAL) Linguistics is my bread and butter. IDIOM: Bread and butter issues are ones that affect people directly and in a very important way.
IDIOMS To buy a pig in apoke The boot is on the other foot Bury the hatchet Between a rock and a hard place On tenterhooks Let the cat out of the bag Bad hair day Hammer and tongs
Pig in a poke If someone buys a pig in a poke, they buy something without checking the condition it was in, usually finding out later that it was defective. Boot is on the other foot When the boot's on the other foot, a person who was in a position of weakness is now in a position of strength.
Bury the hatchet If you bury the hatchet, you make peace with someone and stop arguing or fighting. Bury the hatchet Between a rock and a hard place If you are caught between a rock and a hard place, you are in a position where you have to choose between unpleasant alternatives, and your choice might cause you problems; you will not be able to satisfy everyone. Between a rock and a hard place
On tenterhooks This means that she is waiting impatiently and excitedly for something On tenterhooks Let the cat out of the bag If you accidentally reveal a secret, you let the cat out of the bag. Let the cat out of the bag Bad hair day If you're having a bad hair day, things are not going the way you would like or had planned. Bad hair day
Hammer and tongs If people are going at it hammer and tongs, they are arguing fiercely. The idiom can also be used when people are doing something energetically. Hammer and tongs
Lexical phrases By the way Again and again As far as I With reference to To all intents and purposes
LIBERO COME UN FRINGUELLO CIECO COME UNA TALPA UN MARE DI VOLTE/MIGLIAIA DI VOLTE SANI E SALVI SANO COME UN PESCE GIRARE A VUOTO DI TANTO IN TANTO
To sum up… THE LEXICAL SYSTEM WORDS SENSE RELATIONS LEXICAL RELATIONS MULTI-WORD UNITS … and WORD CLASSES!