2 The 555 Timer The 555 Timer is one of the most popular and versatile integrated circuits ever produced!It is 30 years old and still being used!It is a combination of digital and analog circuits.It is known as the “time machine” as it performs a wide variety of timing tasks.555 timer operate in several modes:1. Monostable mode2. Astable mode3. Bistable mode4. Buffer – Schmitt trigger
4 555 Timer Pin FunctionPIN 1: Ground – Connect this to ground. Remember to connect all grounds in a circuit together.PIN 2: Trigger – A short low (less than 1/3 Vcc) pulse on the trigger starts the timer. By connecting this to ground we "turn on" the timer.PIN 3: Output – During a timing interval, the output stays at +VCC. Can source up to 200ma.PIN 4: Reset – Forces pin 3 low if pulled to ground.PIN 5: Control – Can be used to adjust threshold trigger voltage. Not used in our applications. Connect to ground with a .01uF cap to eliminate supply noise from Vcc.PIN 6: Threshold – When threshold crosses above 2/3 Vcc timing interval ends.PIN 7: Discharge – Connects to ground when output goes low. Controls timing.PIN 8: Vcc – Power supply. Typical range 4.5v to 16v.
5 Applications for the 555 Timer The 555 is a general purpose IC that can be used forPrecision timingPulse generatorsSequential timingTime delay generationLinear ramp generation.Cascaded timersFrequency dividersVoltage-controlled oscillatorsLED flashers
7 Inside the 555 TimerThe voltage divider (blue) has three equal 5K resistors. It divides the input voltage (Vcc) into three equal parts.The two comparators (red) are op-amps that compare the voltages at their inputs and saturate depending upon which is greater.The Threshold Comparator saturates when the voltage at the Threshold pin (pin 6) is greater than (2/3)Vcc.The Trigger Comparator saturates when the voltage at the Trigger pin (pin 2) is less than (1/3)Vcc
8 The flip-flop (green) is a bi-stable device The flip-flop (green) is a bi-stable device. It generates two values, a “high” value equal to Vcc and a “low” value equal to 0V.When the Threshold comparator saturates, the flip flop is Reset (R) and it outputs a low signal at pin 3.When the Trigger comparator saturates, the flip flop is Set (S) and it outputs a high signal at pin 3.The transistor (purple) is being used as a switch, it connects pin 7 (discharge) to ground when it is closed.When Q is low, Qbar is high. This closes the transistor switch and attaches pin 7 to ground.When Q is high, Qbar is low. This open the switch and pin 7 is no longer grounded
9 Monostable Multivibrators Monostable multivibrator – A switching circuit with one stable output state.Also referred to as a one-shot.The one-shot produces a single output pulse when it receives a valid input trigger signal.
10 Monostable OperationFigure 5 – 555 Timer Set Up for Monostable Operation
11 Stable State: 1. The output Qbar of the SR flip-flop (also called a RS flip-flop) is initially set HIGH which turns on the discharge transistor. The discharge transistor then grounds the capacitor C1. The outputs of both comparators 1 and 2 are LOW. See Figure 6.Initial Timing ChartFigure 6 – C1 Grounded
12 Unstable State (C1 Charging): 2 Unstable State (C1 Charging): 2. Comparator 2 serves as the input S (Set) and comparator 1 serves as the R input (Reset) into the SR flip-flop. With the THRESHOLD grounded in the initial stable state, the output of non-inverting comparator 1 is LOW. When the switch S1 is closed driving the TRIGGER input to LOW (more precisely, when it drops below 1/3 Vcc), the output of lower inverting comparator 2 is driven HIGH (See Figure 7). From the SR flip-flop truth table below (Table 1), when the S input is HIGH and R is LOW, the output Qbar of the SR flip-flop is driven LOW and the 555 timer OUTPUT is HIGH due to the inverting buffer stage.Table 1 – SR Flip-Flop Truth Table
13 begins charging through R1. See Figure 7. Figure 7 – C1 Charging Through R13. Since the Qbar is LOW, the discharge transistor is turned off and C1begins charging through R1. See Figure 7.
14 not change (S=0 & R=0), thus remaining in a LOW state. 4. The switch S1 is opened driving the TRIGGER back to HIGH (Figure 8). The output of the lower comparator 2 changes to LOW (Vcc > 1/3 Vcc); comparator 1 remains unchanged at LOW. The trigger pulse must be shorter than the output pulse width allowing time for the timing capacitor to charge and then discharge fully.Figure 8 – C1 Continues Charging Through R15. From the SR flip-flop truth table, the output Qbar of the SR flip-flop doesnot change (S=0 & R=0), thus remaining in a LOW state.
15 Unstable State (C1 Discharging): 6 Unstable State (C1 Discharging): 6. C1 continues to charge until the voltage across C1 exceeds 2/3 Vcc. At this point, the upper comparator 1 is driven HIGH (Figure 9). From Table 1, the SR flip-flop is driven to HIGH (S=0 & R=1) which turns on the discharge transistor and grounds C1 again.Figure 9 – When the Voltage across C1 > 2/3 VCC, C1 Is Grounded
16 not change (S=0 & R=0), thus remaining in a HIGH state and discharge Return to the Stable State: 7. The voltage across C1 is greater than 2/3 Vcc for only a moment before dropping below 2/3 Vcc driving the upper comparator 1 to LOW (Figure 10).Figure 10 – 555 Timer Returns to Stable State8. From the SR flip-flop truth table, the output Qbar of the SR flip-flop doesnot change (S=0 & R=0), thus remaining in a HIGH state and dischargetransistor continues to ground C1. The 555 will remain in the stable stateuntil another LOW trigger pulse is detected.
17 Astable Multivibrators Astable multivibrator – A switching circuit that has no stable output state.The astable multivibrator is a rectangular-wave oscillator.Also referred to as a free-running multivibrator.
18 Astable OperationFigure 3 – 555 Timer Set Up for Astable Operation
19 Charging: 1. When the power is turned on, capacitor C1 is not charged and pin 2 (TRIGGER) and pin 6 (THRESHOLD) voltage (Vin) is at 0 V. 2. The output of lower comparator 2 (inverting) is therefore HIGH (Vin < 1/3 Vcc) and the output of the upper comparator 1 (non-inverting) is LOW (Vin < 2/3 Vcc). 3. Comparator 2 serves as input S (Set) and comparator 1 serves as the R input (Reset) for the SR flip flop (also called a RS flip-flop). From the truth table below for a SR flip-flop, S input is HIGH and R is LOW, therefore the output Qbar of the SR flip-flop is LOW and the 555 timer OUTPUT is HIGH due to the inverting buffer stage.Table 1 – SR Flip-Flop Truth Table
20 4. Since Qbar is LOW, the discharge transistor is turned off and C1 begins charging through R1 and R2. While the capacitor C1 is charging, the OUTPUT of the 555 timer is HIGH; while the capacitor C1 is discharging, the OUTPUT of the 555 timer is LOW.Figure 5 – C1 Charging Through R1 and R2
21 5. When the voltage across C1 (Vin) reaches 1/3 Vcc, the output of the lower comparator 2 changes to LOW; comparator 1 remains unchanged. 6. From the SR flip-flop truth table, the output Qbar of the SR flip-flop does not change (S=0 & R=0), thus remaining in a LOW state. 7. C1 continues to charge until it reaches 2/3 Vcc. At this point, the upper comparator 1 changes to a HIGH state. 8. Since the input R is HIGH and input S is LOW, the output Qbar of the SR flip-flop goes to HIGH.
22 Discharging: 9. The HIGH output from the SR flip-flop turns on the discharge transistor which creates a discharge path for C1 through R2.Figure 8 – C1 Discharging Through R2
23 10. The discharge of C1 causes the output of the upper comparator 1 to change to LOW. 11. The output Qbar of the SR flip-flop does not change (S=0 & R=0), thus remaining in a HIGH state. 12. When C1 discharges to 1/3 Vcc, the lower comparator 2 output changes to HIGH causing the output Qbar of the RS flip-flop to go LOW (S is HIGH and R is LOW). The LOW output Qbar from the SR flip-flop turns off the discharge transistor and C1 begins to recharge. 13. The output of lower comparator 2 then changes to a LOW state, but the RE flip-flop remains LOW continuing to charge the capacitor C1. The capacitor continues the new recharge cycle.
24 14. The 555 timer repeats the charge/discharge cycle between 1/3 Vcc and 2/3 Vcc producing an output periodic square wave (Figure 12).Figure 12 – Relationship between Vin and the Output of the 555 Timer
25 Output Pulses and Formulas for Astable Operation 555 Timer Output Pulses for Astable OperationFigure 15: Astable Operation CircuitFormulas:Discharging time is given by (time of output in HIGH state):T1 = TH = (RA + RB) CDischarge time is given by (time of output in LOW state):T2 = TL = RB CTotal period is:-T = TH + TL= 0.693(RA + 2RB)C
26 Output frequency :% Duty cycle: D ( ratio of high state to period of pulse)
27 ExampleA 555 timer connected as a astable multivibrator, if given a RA = 2.2KΩ, RB = 3.9KΩ and C = C1 = 0.1μF. Draw the waveforms at pin 6 or pin 2 and pin 3. calculate the TH, TL output frequency, f, and % duty cycle, %DT.A 555 timer circuit is connected in astable mode with the values of the following components: -RA = 2kΩ, RB = 4kΩ and C = 0.1μF. Calculate:TH, TL and T, frequency, f, Percentage of duty cycle, %DT. Draw the output waveform.3. A 555 timer connected in the unstable mode and given RA = 2.3kΩ, RB = 4.6kΩ and C = 0.1μF. Calculate TH, TL, frequency, f and percentage of duty cycle of output waveform.
28 Bistable Multivibrator The circuit is called a bistable because it is stable in two states: output high and output low. It is also known as a 'flip-flop'.It has two inputs:Trigger (555 pin 2) makes the output high. Trigger is 'active low', it functions when < 1/3 Vs.Reset (555 pin 4) makes the output low. Reset is 'active low', it resets when < 0.7V.
30 Circuit operationThe circuit is two basic inverters, each taking its input from the other's output. When power is first applied, Q1 turns on, its output will be a logic 0. This will be applied to Q2's input resistor, keeping Q2 turned off so that its output will be a logic 1. This logic 1 will be applied back to Q1's input resistor, keeping Q1 turned on and holding the entire circuit locked into this stable state.On the other hand, if Q1 stays off at power-up, it will apply a logic 1 to Q2's input, thus turning Q2 on. The resulting logic 0 output from Q2 will in turn hold Q1 off. The circuit will then remain in this stable state indefinitely.
31 Waveforms of bistable multivibrator Notice that the circuit is symmetrical; that is, each transistor amplifier has the same component values. When power is first applied, the voltage divider networks place a negative voltage at the bases of Q1 and Q2. Both transistors have forward bias and both conduct.
33 Buffer – Schmitt trigger It is an inverting buffer or NOT gate because the output logic state (low/high) is the inverse of the input state:Input low (< 1/3 Vs) makes output high, +VsInput high (> 2/3 Vs) makes output low, 0VNOT gate symbolSchmitt trigger symbol
34 555 inverting buffer circuit (a NOT gate) When the input voltage is between 1/3 and 2/3 Vs the output remains in its present state. This intermediate input region is a deadspace where there is no response, a property called hysteresis, it is like backlash in a mechanical linkage. This type of circuit is called a Schmitt trigger.If high sensitivity is required the hysteresis is a problem, but in many circuits it is a helpful property. It gives the input a high immunity to noise because once the circuit output has switched high or low the input must change back by at least 1/3 Vs to make the output switch back.