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Drug and Therapeutics Committee Session 7A. Identifying Problems with Medicine Use: Indicator Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "Drug and Therapeutics Committee Session 7A. Identifying Problems with Medicine Use: Indicator Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drug and Therapeutics Committee Session 7A. Identifying Problems with Medicine Use: Indicator Studies

2 Objectives  Describe how indicators can be used to identify medicine use problems  Perform a prescribing indicator study on a sample of prescriptions and explain how it can be used to identify medicine use problems

3 Outline—Part A  Introduction  WHO/INRUD indicators in primary health care  Prescribing indicators  Patient care indicators  Facility indicators  Hospital indicators  Activities  Summary

4 Introduction  Irrational medicine use is widespread and results in—  Poor patient outcome  High cost of inappropriate medicine use  Increased risk of ADRs  Emergence of antimicrobial resistance  Measuring medicine use problems is the first step to improving use

5 Methods to Investigate Medicine Use Indicator study methods  Use data collected at the individual level—patient, health facility  Data insufficient to judge appropriateness of a medicine for a specific diagnosis Aggregate data methods  Use routine data (e.g., stock records) not collected at the individual patient level  Give an overview of medicine use and can highlight problem areas In-depth investigation of medicine use  Prescription audit, patient record review  Drug use evaluation (DUE)  Qualitative methods to understand causes of a medicine use problem

6 Indicators for Health Care Facilities (1)  Measure specific aspects of medicine use and health provider activities in a hospital or health center  Provide information to health care managers concerning medicine use, prescribing habits, and important aspects of patient care to compare or monitor facilities over time

7 Indicators for Health Care Facilities (2)  Characteristics of sound indicators  Relevant  Easily generated and measured  Reliable  Valid  Action-oriented

8 Indicators for Health Care Facilities (3)  Use of indicators  Determine where medicine use problems may exist—when an indicator study shows an extreme result, the DTC can investigate and, as necessary, take action to improve the situation.  Provide a monitoring mechanism  Motivate health care providers to improve and follow established standards

9 WHO Indicators for PHC  Developed by INRUD and WHO  Used for assessing health care and medicine use for primary health care (PHC) in dispensaries, clinics or hospitals  Prescribing indicators  Patient care Indicators  Facility indicators  Complementary medicine use indicators

10 Prescribing Indicators—PHC  WHO/INRUD health facility prescribing indicators  Average number of medicines per encounter  % of medicines prescribed by generic name  % of encounters with an antibiotic prescribed  % of encounters with an injection prescribed  % of medicines prescribed which are from the essential medicines list or formulary list

11 Prescription 1

12 Prescription 2

13 Prescription 3

14 Prescription 4

15 Prescription 5

16 Prescription 6

17 Patient Care Indicators—PHC  WHO/INRUD health facility patient care indicators  Average consultation time  Average dispensing times  % of medicines actually dispensed  % of medicines that are adequately labeled  % of patients who know how to take their medicines

18 Health Facility Indicators—PHC  WHO/INRUD health facility indicators  Availability of essential medicine list or formulary  Availability of key set of indicator medicines  Availability of standard treatment guideline (STG)

19 Complementary Indicators—PHC  WHO/INRUD medicine use indicators with less standardization and less experience in actual use  % of patients treated without medicines  Average medicine costs per encounter  % of medicine cost spent on antibiotics  % of medicine cost spent on injections  % of prescriptions in accordance with STG  % of patients satisfied with care provided  % of facilities with access to impartial information

20 Performing an Indicator Study (1)  Determine objectives, priorities, and indicators  Determine study design according to objectives  Monitoring over time, comparing facilities  Cross-sectional survey, time series  Evaluating interventions  Randomized controlled trial, pre/post with control, time series  Define indicators and data collection procedures  Pilot-test procedures

21 Performing an Indicator Study (2)  Train data collectors  Randomly select facilities (at least 20 if possible) in the region from which to collect data  Obtain approximately 30 medicine use encounters for each facility (100 if only one facility is chosen)  Analyze data  Provide results to DTC for evaluation and follow- up

22 Results of Indicator Studies  Results can be used as follows—  Describing current treatment practices  Comparing the performance of individual facilities or practitioners  Periodic monitoring and supervision of specific medicine use behaviors  Identifying potential medicine problems that affect patient care  Assessing the impact of an intervention

23 Graphs of Indicator Data (1) Facility-Specific Antibiotic Use Percentage of Patients

24 Graphs of Indicator Data (2) Facility-Specific Consultation Times Average Time (minutes)

25 Hospital Antimicrobial Indicators (1) (Developed and being field-tested by MSH) Designed to evaluate and improve antimicrobial use  Facility indicators (four indicators)  Existence of STG and a formulary with approved antimicrobials  Availability of a key set of antimicrobials  Average number of days that this key set of antimicrobials are out of stock over 12 months  Expenditure on antimicrobial medicines as a percentage of total hospital medicine costs

26 Hospital Antimicrobial Indicators (2)  Prescribing indicators (eight indicators) 1.% of hospitalizations with one or more antimicrobials prescribed 2.Average number of antimicrobial medicines prescribed per hospitalization with antimicrobials prescribed 3.% of antimicrobials prescribed consistent with formulary 4.Average cost of antimicrobials prescribed from hospitalizations with one or more antimicrobial prescribed

27 Hospital Antimicrobial Indicators (3)  Prescribing indicators (continued) 5.Average duration of prescribed antimicrobial treatment 6.% of surgical patients who receive antimicrobial prophylaxis 7.% of pneumonia patients who are prescribed antimicrobials in accordance with STG 8.% of antimicrobials prescribed by generic name

28 Hospital Antimicrobial Indicators (4)  Patient care indicators  % of doses of prescribed antimicrobial medicines actually administered  Average duration of stay of patients who receive antimicrobials  Supplemental indicator  Number of antimicrobial medicine sensitivity tests reported

29 Hospital Indicators Developed and Used in Australia and Zimbabwe Designed to evaluate and improve medicine use and health care  Average number of days per hospital admission  Average number of medicines prescribed per hospital admission  % prescribed medicines consistent with hospital formulary list  Average medicine cost per inpatient day  % patients with morbidity due to a preventable ADR  % inpatient deaths due to a preventable ADR  % patients reporting adequate post-operative pain control  % surgical patients receiving appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis  Average number of antimicrobial sensitivity tests per hospital admission

30 Activities 1 and 2  Activity 1  Calculating prescribing indicators from prescription records  Activity 2  Calculating patient care indicators from observing role-play consultations

31 Summary  A major function of a DTC is to identify medicine use problems and to implement corrective measures  Performing an indicator study is useful method to—  Identify medicine use problems at the individual patient level  Monitor medicine use by prescribers  Evaluate the impact of interventions

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