Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 9.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9

2 ProcessesEnergy transfer
Sea Surface Temperature Ocean and atmosphere Stability Net surface radiation flux Surface heat fluxes Sensible and latent heat ProcessesEnergy transfer Coupling Heat transfer by Precip. Salinity Storage and transport of energy below the ocean

3 Just one example… Do we need coupling and fluxes??
Processes in the interface permit interaction each time step

4 Ocean Surface Energy Budget
Adding heat Removing heat Ocean Surface Energy Budget Latent heat Heat transfer by precipitation Sensible heat Net surface radiation flux Ocean Transport of energy via fluid motions Storage Transport of energy via fluid motions Via entrainment

5 Bulk aerodynamic formulae
Surface turbulent heat fluxes High-frequency measurements Sensible heat flux Rarely available Latent heat flux Estimate in terms of other parameters Covariances Bulk aerodynamic formulae Near-surface turbulence arises from the mean wind shear over the surface Turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture are proportional to their gradients just above the ocean surface

6 Bulk aerodynamic formulae
Surface turbulent heat fluxes Bulk aerodynamic formulae Aerodynamic transfer coefficients Under Ordinary conditions Stable Just above the surface Richardson number Neutral unstable

7 Aerodynamic transfer coefficients
Stable Neutral unstable Small for statically stable conditions Large for unstable conditions The magnitude of the heat transfer is inversely proportional to the degree of stability

8 Heat flux for precipitation
Temperature of the rain drop heat transfer occurs if the precipitation is at different temperature than the surface !!! If thermal equilibrium Train= wet bulb T of the atmosphere Greatest for large rainfall rates and large differences in temperature Heat flux from rain cools the ocean Long term contribution to surface energy budget small Commonly Neglected Usually Snow?? Latent heat Melt Snow The latent heat is an order of magnitude larger than sensible heat term

9 Variation of surface energy budget components
Bowen Ratio

10 Important regional differences
Ocean Surface Salinity Budget Precipitation Evaporation Formation of sea ice Melting of sea ice River runoff Storage transport below the ocean surface mm/yr Artic Ocean 97 53 Atlantic Ocean 761 1133 Indian Ocean 1043 1294 Pacific Ocean 1292 1202 All Oceans 1066 1176 Important regional differences

11 P-E average

12 Global river runoff Fresh-water input to the southern oceans comes from melting

13 Ocean Surface Buoyancy flux
Negative value meets the instability criterion Sinking motion in the ocean Evaporation Increases the buoyancy flux Ratio of the cooling term to the salinity term of evaporation Tropics T=30 C; s=35 psu 8.0 High latitudes T=0 C; s=35 psu 0.6 Precipitation decreases and increases the buoyancy flux Freshening effects of rain dominate the cooling effects of rain at all latitudes Snow Freshening dominates the effect on the buoyancy flux

14 Ice/ocean Heat flux terms that influence the surface Sea Ice grows
Penetration of solar radiation beneath the ice Latent heat associated with freezing or melting ice Increase salinity Sea Ice grows releases latent heat Typical polar conditions Salinity term dominates in determining ocean surface buoyancy flux

15 large body of air that has similar temperature and moisture properties throughout.
Air mass The best for air masses are large flat areas where air can be stagnant long enough to take on the characteristics of the surface below Source regions uniform surface composition - flat light surface winds The longer the air mass stays over its source region, the more likely it will acquire the properties of the surface below. Once an air mass moves out of its source region, it is modified as it encounters surface conditions different than those found in the source region. For example, as a polar air mass moves southward, it encounters warmer land masses Classification: Tropical (T) Continental (C) By thermal properties Polar (P) By moisture Maritime (m) Artic or Antarctic (A) Also Cold (K) Warm (W)

16 Continental Arctic (cA):
Extremely cold temperatures and very little moisture. Continental Arctic (cA): originate north of the Arctic Circle, where days of 24 hour darkness allow the air to cool very rarely form during the summer not as cold as Arctic air masses form during the summer, but usually influence only the northern USA Continental polar (cP): Cool and moist form over the northern Atlantic and the northern Pacific oceans Maritime polar (mP): can form any time of the year and are usually not as cold as continental polar air masses. Warm temperatures and moisture originate over the warm waters of the southern Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico Maritime tropical (mT): can form year round Hot and very dry Continental Tropical (cT): usually form over the Desert Southwest and northern Mexico during summer


18 Water mass the wind-driven surface circulation
Two basic circulation systems in the oceans the deepwater density-driven circulation Only about 10% of the ocean volume is involved in wind-driven surface currents. The other 90% circulates due to density differences in water masses Water masses are identified by their temperature, salinity, and other properties such as nutrients or oxygen content. Different inputs of freshwater Patterns of precipitation Evaporation temperature regimes all water masses gain their particular characteristics because of interaction with the surface during their development. Once water masses sink, their temperature and salinity are modified primarily by mixing with other water masses (diffusive and turbulent heat exchange). process is very slow

19 Water mass surface water 0-200 meters
intermediate water  meters deep water  meters bottom water deeper than deep water their names generally incorporate information about the depth levels they occur at North Atlantic Deep Water forms in the region around Iceland. North Atlantic Intermediate Water has come near the surface and has been cooled by the contact with the air. Mediterranean Outflow Water is a deep water mass that results from high salinity, not cooling. Antarctic Bottom Water is the most distinct of all deep water masses. It is cold (-0.5°C or 31.1°F) and salty (34.65 parts per thousand).


Download ppt "Chapter 9."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google