Presentation on theme: "Homework P.86-7 exam style questions Order a heart from butchers for dissection pig, next week day = Pig/ox (big one) With atria and blood vessels on for."— Presentation transcript:
Homework P.86-7 exam style questions Order a heart from butchers for dissection pig, next week day = Pig/ox (big one) With atria and blood vessels on for dissection please
Work for Tuesday 20 th p1 or p2 bring weds/fri lesson Read p88-9 (heart structure) Make a list of bullet points on this Do red p89 and mark Read P.91 Valves (only) Make a list of bullet points on this Complete heart worksheet (answers behind desk in library, already there) Homework for week = start to revise for mock exam. BRING REVISION TO 27 th WITH HEART
Syllabus points Describe the effects of fibrosis, asthma, and emphysema on lung function Explain symptoms of diseases and conditions affecting the lungs in terms of gas exchange and respiration
What is asthma? Asthma is a chronic condition in which the airways occasionally narrow and become inflamed, limiting airflow. Asthma causes difficulty breathing, wheezing and chest tightness, and can be mild or life-threatening. Treatment is with bronchodilators, corticosteroids, or a combination of the two. Asthma is triggered by a range of stimuli, such as allergens, dust, exercise, stress and infections.
COPD: emphysema Emphysema is a gradual breakdown of alveolar walls and damage to terminal bronchioles and alveolar capillaries. This reduces the efficiency of gas exchange, causing chronic breathlessness and hyperventilation. Using this photo of healthy lung tissue (left) and emphysema lung tissue (right), can you explain why gas exchange is less efficient in emphysema?
Name the disease 1 2 3 http://www.abpischools.org.uk/lib/l iInteractiveAnim/195/asthma_atta ck.swf http://www.abpischools.or g.uk/lib/liInteractiveAnim/2 05/salbutamol3.swf
COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD leads to damaged airways in the lungs, causing them to become narrower and making it harder for air to get in and out of the lungs. The word ‘chronic’ means that the problem is long-term.
Diagnosing COPD There is no one single test for COPD. Diagnosis depends on taking into account a patient’s risk factors (e.g. whether they smoke, their age), their symptoms and clinical tests. Testing the patient’s lung function using spirometry is essential. It can determine whether there is airway obstruction and can help exclude the possibility of other respiratory diseases, such as asthma or lung cancer.
Effect on lung function, gas exchange and respiration Using cut out tabulate the information needed for each disease. Include diagrams and examples where necessary
Lung diseases FibrosisAsthmaEmphysema What happens Symptoms Causes Effect on lung function/gas exchange Effect on respiration
Diseasefibrosisasthmaemphysema What happens Scars thicken lung tissue Diffusion distance for gases increased Elasticity of alveoli reduced therefore difficult to breathe out so hard to maintain diffusion gradient Localized allergic reaction Histamine released by bronchioles/bronchi causes airway lining to become inflamed More mucus is secreted by the epithelial cells Muscles around bronchioles contract to constrict airways Lungs irreversibly damaged by smoke Elastic tissue permanently strtched so alveoli not emptied properly Alveoli burst so reduced surface area for gas exchange Symptoms Short of breath Chronic dry cough Cough more to try to remove irritated lung tissue Pain in chest due to tissue damage Weakness and fatigue – can’t get enough oxygen into the blood Difficulty breathing Wheezing sounds Tight chest Cough Short of breath Chronic cough Blue skin CauseUnclear, microscopic lung injury/genetic susceptible Genetic, air pollution, stress, chemicals in products, fewer allergens exposed to children Smoking Industrial e.g. mining Effect on lung function Reduced due to longer diffusion distance, reduced diffusion gradient Resistance to air flow prevents concentration gradient being maintained Reduced due to less surface area for gas exchange and reduced diffusion gradient as alveoli cannot empty efficiently Effect on respiration Less oxygen so less aerobic respiration in tissue. Less carbon dioxide taken away
Peak flow meters Human biology text p.125 Using a sterilised mouthpiece measure your own peak flow Why do asthmatics use peak flow as a measure of their disease?
Plenary – which disease causes this effect? 1.Reduces surface area for gas exchange 2.reduces diffusion gradient 3.Less respiration in the tissues 4.Scars in lung tissue 5.Constricted bronchi 6.Burst alveoli 7.Dry Cough 8.Chronic cough 9.Tight chest cough 1.Fibrosis,emphysema 2.Fibrosis asthma 3.All 3 4.Fibrosis 5.Asthma 6.Emphysema 7.Fibrosis 8.Emphysema 9.Asthma