Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Early Literacy in Infants and Toddlers

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Early Literacy in Infants and Toddlers"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Literacy in Infants and Toddlers
Idaho Association for the Education of Young Children Regional Conference Coeur d’Alene, Idaho October 19, 2013

2 Your Presenter Staci Shaw
Other Read to Me Coordinators: Stephanie Bailey-White Erica Compton VISTA: Julie Armstrong

Who we are… The Idaho Commission for Libraries assists libraries to build the capacity to better serve their clientele. Our vision is for all parents and caregivers to nurture their children’s early literacy skills, and for all children to develop as independent readers and become lifelong learners. Staci

4 Outcomes As a result of the presentation today, I hope you will:
Be aware of current research relating to early literacy, vocabulary development, and access to print materials Be able to incorporate six early literacy skills children must develop in order to become successful readers into curriculum Be able to share talking points with parents about the importance of early literacy Learn about free resources available from ICfL and local libraries to help support development of early literacy skills Staci A copy of a similar presentation is uploaded on our website (next slide). All notes are included so you can go back and reference.

5 Agenda What is early literacy?
Development of Six Early Literacy Skills in Infants and Toddlers Resources @ your library Q and A

6 “Early Literacy” What children know about reading and writing before they learn to read and write. Early Literacy is what children know about reading and writing BEFORE they learn to read and write. It lays the foundation for reading so when children go to school and are taught to read they are ready. Early literacy is not teaching reading. Early literacy begins at birth when parents and caregivers start talking with infants and encompasses the many things that expand children’s world and word knowledge throughout their toddler and preschool years. Flower: petals represent what we want parents and caregivers to do with their children; leaves are the foundational skills children need to develop.

7 In Idaho “Proficient” on the kindergarten Idaho Reading Indicator (IRI) is knowing 11 or more letters. IRI scores in 2012 show that approximately 19% of children entering Kindergarten did not recognize three or more letters of the alphabet. Another 25% recognized fewer than 11 letters. IRI scores in 2012 show that 27% of low-income children entering kindergarten (those receiving free or reduced lunch rates) did not recognize three or more letters. Another 27% recognized fewer than 11 letters. The target goal for alphabet knowledge is to know 11 letters before entering kindergarten. “Proficient” on the kindergarten IRI is knowing 11 or more letters.

8 In Idaho Family poverty is significantly associated with lower reading achievement scores for children, and Idaho has a high percentage of families living in poverty. In 2011, over 55% of infants born in Idaho received Women Infant Children (WIC) services. (Idaho Division of Public Health, Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics) Let’s take a look at the situation in Idaho.

9 Some key findings… The development of early literacy skills in a child’s life can better prepare that child for success in reading when he or she enters school. Children who do not have early literacy experiences before they begin school start behind and tend to stay behind (the Matthew Effect). Children who are not reading on grade level by the end of first grade have a in 8 chance of catching up without costly direct intervention. Research shows that children who do not have early literacy experiences before they start going to school start behind and tend to stay behind. We know that if children are not reading on grade level by the end of first grade there’s only a one in eight chance that they’ll catch up without costly direct intervention.

10 Implications Reading scores have important implications for later achievement. Basic readers are more than twice as likely as proficient readers to fail to graduate from high school. Below basic readers are almost six times as likely to fail to graduate. Only 33% of Idaho’s fourth graders scored proficient or higher on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); 36% scored at the basic level and 31% below basic. The number of Idaho children who are not reading on grade level leads to a large number of students who do not complete high school or go on to college. Early literacy skills are the roots of reading proficiency, and ultimately the roots of school success (refer to ACT research).

11 They are ready to learn to read.
Why is it important for children to get ready to read before they start school? Children who start kindergarten with good pre-reading skills have an advantage. They are ready to learn to read. Points to make Children’s reading success in kindergarten and beyond begins with positive language and literacy experiences from the time they are infants. If children develop pre-reading skills before they start kindergarten, they can focus on learning to read once they begin school. Children who start kindergarten ready to learn to read have greater success throughout their school years. They are more likely to read at or above grade level by the end of 2nd grade. Children who read at or above grade level by the end of 3rd grade are much more likely to graduate from high school and be successful readers and learners throughout their lives.

12 What do children need to learn to become good readers?
To become successful readers, children need to: Learn a code Understand its meaning Points to make Learning to read involves two key skills: Children must learn to decode print. They need to understand that the words they hear and say can be written with letters (the code). They need to learn that letters represent the sounds they hear in words. Children need to understand or comprehend what print says. They need to learn the meaning of individual words. They also need to understand the meaning of the books or stories they read.

13 [ *<: }><#. < / * # > + \ ** [ = ) ] ~
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm < / * # > \ ** [ = ) ] ~ Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz : ]] { } // ^ ! [[ (( >> \\ | [ *<: }><#. Answer: “I can read.” Points to make You decoded the symbols. You matched the symbols to letters and sounds and read the words. Reading is learning the code.

14 What is decoding? Noticing print Knowing letter names and sounds
What do children need to know before they can learn to read? What is decoding? Noticing print Knowing letter names and sounds Hearing the sounds that make up words Points to make Remember that children need to learn two key skills. The first is decoding. In order to decode words, children need to: Notice print and understand that printed words stand for spoken words. Know how a book works: how to open a book, turn pages, and follow words on a page from left to right. Know letter names and sounds. Be able to hear and play with the sounds in words. Knowing letter names and sounds and being able to hear and play with the sounds in words are the strongest predictors of early reading success.

15 Reading is understanding the meaning.
Reading is more than decoding words. Good readers understand the meaning of what they read. Meg is hipple when she roffs with her mom. Points to make If you don’t know what “hipple” and “roffs” mean, you do not know what the sentence means. Children can learn to decode words but not understand what they mean. To become good readers, children must decode words and interpret their meaning. These are skills children need to develop before they actually learn to read. That is why it is important to start at birth to get children ready to read. Let’s talk a little more about decoding and comprehension skills. Reading is understanding the meaning.

16 What is comprehension? Knowing what words mean (vocabulary)
What do children need to know before they can learn to read? What is comprehension? Knowing what words mean (vocabulary) Understanding the meaning of printed language Points to make To become successful readers, children need to understand the meaning of what they read. Making sense of written language—comprehension—is at the heart of what it means to be a good reader. Vocabulary and comprehension skills start to develop from the time a child is an infant. A baby listens to what parents and other caregivers say and learns the meaning of words. The more language experiences children have, the more words they learn and the better they become at understanding the meaning of what is being said. This will help children understand the meaning of written words as they learn to read.

17 Five simple practices help children get ready to read:
Help children be ready to read with simple activities every day. Five simple practices help children get ready to read: Points to make We are going to talk about five of the best ways to help children learn pre- reading skills and get ready to read. These five practices are easy to do with children of all ages. They can be done at home, at the doctor’s office, in the car, or anywhere you and your child spend time together. The five best ways to help your child get ready to read are: Talking Singing Reading Writing Playing

18 Early Learning eGuidelines
Provides detailed guidelines and strategies for early childhood development Is for parents, child caregivers, child care educators, etc. Is an electronic resource, allowing for individualized searches Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Before we get started learning about the six early literacy skills I want to make sure you are all familiar with the State of Idaho Department of Health and Welfare’s Idaho Early Learning Guidelines (Display website and include information in workshop handouts.) They are used by early childhood educators and child care providers statewide, and can be found at this link. If you ever have any questions about child development, cognitive learning, and such, this is a great place to start. You will see that each of the six skills we learn about today can be found or described in Domain 5-Communication, Language and Literacy.

19 A foundation for reading…
The Six Early Literacy Skills Research has confirmed that much of what we have been doing in our libraries helps set the stage for learning to read. In 2000, the Public Library Association and the Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) developed a project called Every Child Ready to Read that would strengthen the connection to the research-based Six Early Literacy Skills and parents and caregivers. Continuum 0-60 months. Handout: Books and Stages (0 – 35 months only)

20 The Six Early Literacy Skills
Today I’m going to provide a quick overview of the 6 Early Literacy Skills – what they are and what books support those skills, noting that nearly every children’s book can be used to support any of the six skills. These skills are no particular order. We begin supporting these skills at birth, varying how and when we develop them as appropriate for the developmental level of the child.

21 Handout

22 Print Motivation The joy of, and interest in, reading books
Keeping reading FUN and sharing books is important. If the experience is not a positive one, children will relate reading to something negative, which will make them less likely to choose to read. Children who learn that literacy is an enjoyable experience may be more motivated to learn to read later on. However, some parents, especially those who struggle with reading themselves, may not able to make reading “fun.” Our goal can be to make sharing books with a child a positive experience. Sharing books with babies can look many different ways. You may have baby in your arms and hold up a book while he stares wide-eyed at the brightly colored pictures. You may have baby on your lap, leaning his back against your chest. You may be looking at the pictures in a book together. Baby may be lying on the floor on his stomach looking at the pictures in a book you have laid down in front of him. The main thing is that you and the child are having an enjoyable time sharing books together.

23 Print Motivation Model fun of reading and of playing with language-- enjoy book and interaction yourself Begin reading books early—even when baby is a newborn. Make sure you and child are in a good mood. Have a comfortable area to share reading time. Stop reading when child becomes tired or loses interest. Read aloud every day A “positive” experience is one where the adult is focused on the child without distractions. If child chews on book it’s ok. Say, “Oh, this looks good! Let’s see what is inside!” Keep experience light and stress-free! Activity: Pete the Cat: I Love My White Shoes

24 Suggested books Cloth or “indestructible” books
Board books with bright, simple illustrations Board books with photographs of other babies Books with contrast Let child choose books for you to share Note: Not all “board books” are for babies/toddlers Handouts: More Read Alouds for Babies Bookmarks, More Read Alouds for Toddlers Bookmarks


26 Early Learning Guideline
Goal 59: Understand information from oral stories, reading books, and pictures. Optional

27 Print Awareness Knowing that print has meaning, knowing how to handle a book, and recognizing print in the environment Being familiar with printed language helps children feel comfortable with books and understand that print is useful. Before children learn to read, they must be familiar with how books work: books have a cover, you begin to read at the top of the page and from left to right (in English and in many languages), books have words and pictures to tell the story. When children feel comfortable with books, they can concentrate on reading. Print awareness is the general understanding of how print is used and that print has meaning rather than knowledge about specific letters, and print is all around us.

28 Print Awareness Use board books or cloth books and let child hold book and turn pages If there are only a few words on the page, point to each word as you say it Run finger under title and/or repeated phrases Talk about environmental print (road signs, menus, food labels) Point out different kinds of print within books Video Babies will often “hit” a book. This is a beginning step to turning pages. As they become more coordinated they bat individual pages of a board book as you turn pages. Later they will actually be able to turn pages! If you point to pictures and talk about them, your baby will imitate you over time. Babies: video (Helga)

29 Suggested books Any book!
If there are only a few words on each page, point to each as you read it. Books with repetitive text Books with writing as part of the pictures Books with different kinds of typeface Because print awareness at this age mostly focuses on book handling behaviors, you can use any book. Stuffy, bath, board, indestructible books are better for little hands and curious mouths. Books with repetitive text that you can point to and have the children repeat it with you -- “Good Night Gorilla!” or books like Mouse Mess – lots of environmental print Activity: What Shall We Do with the Boo Hoo Baby?

30 Early Learning Guideline
Goal 58: Know that languages and words can be in written form. Optional

31 Print Motivation and Print Awareness in my child care setting:

32 Narrative Skills Retelling stories, retelling events, and adding descriptions The ability to describe things and events, and the ability to tell stories, helps children better understand what they read. Picture book sharing can play a huge role in a child’s ability to describe things and events and to tell stories. Reading storybooks helps children gain a sense of story structure: a beginning a middle and an end in some stories, or a beginning, a problem, and a resolution in others.

33 Narrative Skills As you talk with your children, give them time to “talk” back to you Have props available so your children can retell stories with puppets, a flannel board, props, or creative dramatics. Encourage your children to talk and expand their descriptions of things. When baby coos or babbles, talk back to them. Video To help children talk about or describe something we can use lots of “who, what, when, where, why, and how” questions: A word about dialogic reading: Research has shown that it is not enough to just read to a child. How adults read with children is as important as whether and how often adults read to them. Basically, the dialogic reading method promotes dialogue or conversation between the adult and the young child.

34 Suggested books Board books with photos or illustrations of everyday things Board books with animals Books with a repeated phrase or repetition in the plot Books that tell a cumulative tale

35 Early Learning Guideline
Goal 54: Comprehension in Language Optional

36 Vocabulary Knowing the names of things, understanding the meaning of words The more words young children know before they enter school, the better. Children who have never encountered a word will have a hard time reading it in a book later on. Vocabulary is knowing the names of things & understanding the meaning of words. The more words young children know before they enter school, the better. I’ll use the example that children who have never heard the word enormous will have a hard time reading that word when they encounter it in a book and a hard time comprehending it when they do hear it, if it’s their first exposure to it. It takes about 12 exposures to a single word to have it be part of a child’s (or adult’s) vocabulary bank!

37 Vocabulary development
Children should learn about 3,000 or more new words a year, according to Honig Vocabulary is richer and broader in picture books vs. watching TV Children need to be exposed to a word at least 12 times before they can start to use it in their vocabulary Did you know? It has been estimated that children learn an average of 3,000 to 12,000 new vocabulary words each year in situations where they are listening to good books. This may be due to the difference in rare words – words they are unlikely to hear in every day conversations – they encounter reading as opposed to other activities. Children’s books contain 50 percent more rare words than prime-time television or the conversations of college graduates!

38 Vocabulary Take time before or during the reading of a book to explain an unfamiliar word (don’t replace the word) Talk about feelings Add descriptive words Speak “parentese,” as in a slightly higher pitch, speaking more slowly and in short sentences After reading a book, go back to an interesting picture and talk about it, adding less familiar words Show real items when possible; for babies and toddlers, point to and name objects Here are some things you can do to expand children’s word and world knowledge – taking the time to explain a word or two that may be unfamiliar, using nonfiction in storytimes & booktalking it, showing real items when possible – coconut with Chicka Chicka Boom Boom – have them touch it, smell it, taste it, using their senses helps them remember so much. Bookwalks

39 Suggested books Any book! Just read, talk about, and name objects in the book. Non-fiction books Picture books that illustrate concepts- big/little, up/down, etc. Book examples: Talking and reading with young children is so important, it really doesn’t matter which book you choose!

40 Early Learning Guideline
Goal 51: Use responses that demonstrate an increased knowledge of specific concepts and to use phrases and sentences with functional and descriptive vocabulary. Optional

41 Narrative Skills and Vocabulary in my child care setting:

42 Letter Knowledge Knowing letters are different from each other, that the same letter can look different, and that each letter has a name and relates to specific sounds. Letter Knowledge is knowing letters are different from each other, that the same letter can look different, and that each letter has a name and relates to specific sounds. Shapes

43 Letter Knowledge Help babies/toddlers see and feel different shapes
Point out letters on toys, food boxes and other objects Play matching games (alike and different) Encourage scribbling Have letters available to “play” with: magnetic, foam, flannel Sing the alphabet song, including different versions Infants and toddlers start developing this skill by playing with shapes and learning things like balls are round. Later on with more exposure to reading and writing, they learn letter shapes and enjoy using their senses to explore by making letters out of play dough or wet spaghetti noodles, or with their bodies or fingers.

44 Suggested books Board books with shapes, colors Shapes/colors books
Alike and different books Alphabet/number books Book examples: Shapes board book, alphabet books, puzzles and puzzle books help children develop visual discrimination (seeing the difference in shapes, etc.)

45 Early Learning Guideline
Goal 57: Recognize letters as special symbols to represent spoken language.

46 Letter Knowledge in my child care setting:

47 Phonological Awareness
Ability to hear and play with the smaller sounds in words Includes rhyming, breaking words apart and putting word chunks together, and hearing beginning sounds. Some people think phonological awareness is “phonics.” Phonics is simply learning that there is a relationship between the sounds in a spoken language and the letters and spellings that represent those sounds in the written language. This is a very abstract concept for young children! In order to help them build phonemic awareness, children must first be aware that words are made up of small parts. The word “chip” has three parts: ch-i-p. Activities that work with rhyme, syllables, words and initial sounds will help develop the broader concept of phonological awareness.

48 Phonological Awareness
Sing songs and repeat them Say nursery rhymes so that child hears words that rhyme-- emphasize rhyming words Add actions as you sing a song or recite a poem--This helps child break down language into separate words Change initial sound in familiar songs, or a repeated phrase in a story Make up your own silly, nonsense rhymes Say rhymes and sing songs in language most comfortable for you Video: Songs & Language.wmv Sing throughout the day Singing helps break words into syllables, and also often rhyme. Clap or tap to put a motion with each syllable: Twink-le twink-le lit-tle star Pat-a-Cake Acka Backa Soda Cracker (babies) Row Row Row Your Boat can become “do do do your doat!” This is the way we change your diaper-- so nice and clean, put on your socks—so can go out and play, make Mommy’s coffee—get through the day Songs & Language.wmv Acka Backa Acka backa soda cracker Acka backa boo! (rock/bounce) Acka backa soda cracker, I love you! (give baby a hug) Acka back soda cracker, acka back boo! (rock/bounce) Acka back soda cracker, Up goes you! (lift child up into the air) Acka back soda cracker, I love You! (give baby a hug)

49 Suggested books Books with rhyme Books with alliteration
Books with sounds of animals and other things Songs in book format Books of Mother Goose rhymes Poetry books Any book! Read Peek-a-Moo

50 Early Learning Guideline
Goal 56: Purposefully engage in activities that promote phonological awareness and to manipulate phonemes to make new words and to rhyme.

51 Phonological Awareness in my child care setting:

52 ICfL/Read to Me Resources
Support materials library Early Literacy Centers Parent/caregiver activity sheets (also in Spanish)

53 New Resources: TumbleBooks™ through library website
Read to Me on Facebook The Bookworm monthly newsletter subscription Scan with your Smartphone or tablet to go directly to page

54 Subscribe:
The Bookworm Free copy each month, subscribe at link or go to and click on Publications tab at top right. Cannot subscribe for Spanish issue at this time but can access it on website. Subscribe:

55 Staci: Libraries have played an important role in children’s early literacy development for the past century. They offer great children’s books, readers’ advisory for parents and children, developmentally appropriate storytimes, summer reading programs, workshops and resources for parents, and many libraries also take these same types of services to daycares, Head Start centers and other locations in the community. For many young children, the public library is where the first contact with the world of books and reading takes place. And library programs for young children are the only free early childhood education program in Idaho accessible by ALL children, whether they have a library card or not. Librarians have become very knowledgeable about early literacy. Over the years they have adopted best practices in early education, and have designed programs and children’s spaces based on sound research. The core of children’s librarians in Idaho continuously expand their expertise in this area, and are a valuable resource for parents and grandparents, teachers, care providers, social service practitioners, medical professionals, and others interested in early learning.

56 Have you visited your library lately?
Storytimes Play areas (dramatic, blocks) Books Music CDs and audiobooks, DVDs Storykits Computers E-Books (e-audio, e-pub) Other programs: Music and Movement, Bilingual, School-Age, Parents, Child Care, STEM Families do not need a library card to access on-site programs, except computers in some libraries. If families live outside city or district they usually have to pay a fee. Some families have cards but do not use them because of existing fines, or lost or damaged books. Some families do not understand the concept of a lending library, or have not grown up in a culture of library use. Some are intimidated by language barriers. Many of these challenges can be worked out by meeting with your local librarian.

57 Access to Print Materials
The most successful way to improve the reading achievement of low-income children is to increase their access to print. Newman, Sanford, et al. “America’s Child Care Crisis: A Crime Prevention Tragedy”; Fight Crime; Invest in Kids, 2000 “Access to Print Materials Improves Children’s Reading: A Meta-Analysis of 108 Most Relevant Studies Shows Positive Impacts,” Learning Point Associates, Study commissioned by Reading is Fundamental.

58 Access to Print Materials
There is a causal role between increased access to materials and- increases in the amount of reading children do increases in children’s emergent literacy skills improvements in children’s reading achievement How many of you or your children play a sport? In order to become a good player, are you expected to only practice skills during scheduled practice times? So if we want to become a better soccer or basketball player, and we’ve agreed we need to practice outside of regularly scheduled practice times, how can we do that if we don’t have access to a soccer or basketball? Book lending and book ownership programs improve children’s reading performance. Children’s access to print materials produces positive impacts on children’s outcomes. Programs that lent print materials to children and programs that gave print material to children to keep both had positive impacts. When children have more access to books and other print material, they develop more positive attitudes toward reading and learning. The meta-analysis also showed a causal role between increased access to materials and increases in the amount of reading children do, increases in children’s emergent literacy skills, and improvements in children’s reading achievement. This research directly aligns with findings from evaluations of the ICfL Read to Me First Book program. Access to Print Materials Improves Children’s Reading ~study commissioned by Reading Is Fundamental (RIF), 2010

59 Partnering with Library:
Provides access to books for families who may have barriers to getting to the library. Library provides a bin of books-- 15 bags with 3 books in each bag. Parents check out a bag to take home. Each bag also contains a Bookworm literacy handout, a contents page with a literacy handout, and a quick survey. Library can apply now

60 Partnering with Library:
September through May: Library visits once per month for storytime Children receive one book each month to take home and keep (total 9 books) Parents receive Bookworm each month Age groups: Birth – 2; preschool; kindergarten Library hosts one early literacy parent workshop or family event Libraries apply February-April

61 Partnering with Library:
Library hosts 3-hour workshop on Early Literacy Skills If facilitated by ICfL “Approved Trainer” attendees can receive 3 IdahoSTARS credits—free! Each classroom receives free Literacy Kit: 20 paperback books, music CD, large letter magnets, and a professional resource Targeted to preschool-age, but can customize Libraries apply anytime

62 See CD with handouts Some useful handouts for parents:
Handout: Reach Out and Read (English and Spanish)

63 I used to think… But now I know…

64 Support Materials See packet of support materials Optional

65 Additional Early Literacy Support
Materials, handouts, research, and professional development that is available… Saroj Ghoting, Early Literacy Consultant: Hennepin County Library: Washington Learning Systems: Ohio Ready to Read: Center for Early Literacy Learning (CELL): Zero to Three – School Readiness Interactive Tool Washington County Cooperative Library Services (WCCLS) Colorado Libraries for Early Literacy (CLEL) Storyblocks: Staci: Zero to Three School Readiness: WCCLS: Great rhymes, songs, fingerplays (written and in video form), Spanish and English. Hennepin: Rhymes, songs, fingerplays, booklists WALearning: Home activities, many languages

66 Thank you for joining me today
Thank you for joining me today. Please let us know how we can support your efforts to strengthen literacy in your child care setting. Staci Shaw: Stephanie Bailey-White: Erica Compton: Julie Armstrong: Idaho Commission for Libraries 325 W. State St., Boise, 83702 or toll free

67 Individual studies and citations can be provided upon request
Sources NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (NICHD) NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS READING IS FUNDAMENTAL IDAHO STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION Studies referenced in today’s presentation: Bus, Adriana G.; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pellegrini, Anthony D. “Joint Book Reading Makes for Success in Learning to Read: A Meta-Analysis on Intergenerational Transmission of Literacy.” Review of Educational Research Spring : 1-21. Scarborough, H.S. and Dobrich, W. (1994) “On the efficacy of reading to preschoolers.” Developmental Review, 14, Idaho State Department of Education IRI Scores Results: American Library Association, Every Child Ready to Read: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Academy Press studies can be found here, as well as other early literacy studies: “Access to Print Materials Improves Children’s Reading: A Meta-Analysis of 108 Most Relevant Studies Shows Positive Impacts,” Learning Point Associates, Study commissioned by Reading is Fundamental. Individual studies and citations can be provided upon request

Download ppt "Early Literacy in Infants and Toddlers"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google