# Chapter 1 Quick review over Electronics and Electric Components Prepared By : Elec Solv.

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Chapter 1 Quick review over Electronics and Electric Components Prepared By : Elec Solv

Quick review over Electronics & Electric Components :-  Quick review over Electronics & Electric Components :- 1. Resistors 2. Capacitors. 3. Switches and Relays. 4. Diodes. 5. Transistors. 6. Voltage Regulators. 7. Operation Amplifiers. 8. Logic Gates. 9. Boards.

1. Resistors Definition. Usage. Connection in the Circuit. Types. Power Budget.

Definition Definition Resistor is a passive component that prevents the current to pass in the electric circuit. V = I. R Where : V = The Voltage across the resistor in Volts. I = The Current passing in the resistor in Amperes. R =The Value of the resistor in Ohms.

Connection in the circuit Parallel Connection.  The Voltage is constant.  The Current is divided. Series Connection.  The Voltage is divided.  The Current is constant.

Connection in the circuit Connection in the circuit Pull Up Resistor Pull Down Resistor

Types Types Types of Resistors VariableFixed

o Readings table for Fixed Resistors

o Fixed Resistors

o Variable Resistors Resistors values is being changed manually  potentiometer  Trimmer

o Variable Resistors Resistors change its value due to physical phenomena :-  LDR - Light Dependant Resistance – the value of this resistance is inverse proportion with the amount of light falling on it.  Thermistor, and so many types.

Power Budget We mean by Power Budget, the maximum power that the resistor can withstand without being damaged.

Capacitors 2. Capacitors Definition. Types. Application.

Definition Definition A Capacitor consists of two plates between them there is a dielectric material and it store electrical energy.

Types Types Polarized :-  We must wire the anode to positive terminal to the battery and the cathode to the negative terminal of the battery. Non-polarized :-  No anode or cathode.

Application Application Smoothing the signals like in Rectifier Circuits. Used with other ICs to make them do some functions.

3. Switches and Relays Definition. Rating. Types.

Definition of a Switch Definition of a Switch A Switch is a component that allows us to make the circuit opened or closed circuit.

Definition of a Relay Definition of a Relay A Relay is an electromechanical switch, that means that it is a normal switch but it is controlled electrically as we see in the figures.

o Rating of switches Switches’ rating is :-  Max current that can pass through it without having a fault.  The max voltage that could be applied across it without having a fault.

o Rating of Relays Relays’ rating is :-  The value and type of the voltage applied across the coil to energize the electromagnetic field.  The max current can pass through the contact without having a fault.  The type and max value of the voltage applied across the contact without having a fault.

Types Types Switches and Relays can be classified according to many characteristics like rating, pole and throw and applications. We will discuss the basic of two classifications.

Pole and Throw Pole and Throw Pole : is the piece of copper that connects the current in the switch Throw : is the point that the pole touches when connecting the current. We can say they are :  SPST  DPDT  And so many of them.

According to Operation According to Operation Limit Switch On – Off – ON switch On – off switch Push button Present Sensor And so may types

4. Diodes Definition. Meter Check. Types. Application.

Definition A Diode is an electronic gate that allow the current to flow in one direction.

Meter Check Use the Multi-meter on the Buzzer mode, and wire its two terminals to the 2 sides of the diode then:-  The Multi-meter will read very high value if the diode is reversed.  The multi-meter will read very low value if the diode is forward biased.

Types There are many types of diodes like :-  Normal Diode.  Zener Diode.  LED – Light Emitting Diode -.  Some other types.  Note that a Bridge is combination of 4 diodes.

Application Diodes are used in several application like :-  Half-wave rectifier circuit.  Power Supply Circuits.  Protect electronic circuits.

5. Transistors Definition & Types. Meter Check. Modes. Application.

Definition & Types Definition & Types The Transistor is a three- terminal component. It is used as amplifier or electronic switch and so many usages. We will learn about BJT transistor, and it has two types :-  NPN  PNP

Meter Check We’ll put the Multi-meter on the Buzzer mode and check each PN junction in the transistor.

Modes Transistor has 3 modes of operating :-  Saturation ( as a closed switch ).  Cutoff ( as an opened switch ).  Active mode ( as an amplifier).

Application Application Relay Driver Circuit

6. Voltage Regulators Definition. Types. Application.

Definition Definition It is designed to adjust the current passing through the load – so it maintains a constant output voltage – by comparing the supply’s DC output voltage with a fixed or programmed reference voltage.

Types Types Fixed  Positive ( 78xx series )  Negative (79xx series) Adjustable

Applications Applications  Power Supply Circuit.

7. Operational Amplifiers Definition. Modes. Application. We will deal with 741 IC while there are many types of Op Amps.

Definition Definition Operational Amplifier is an IC that is designed to do several functions like :-  Amplifying Signals.  Comparing between two signals.  Summing Signals.  And so many applications.

Modes Comparator. Inverting. Non-inverting. Summer. Differentiator. And other modes.

We can use :- We can use :- The formula (V 1 - V 2 ) A = V out A = The Gain. V 1 = Input Voltage on the non-inverting pin. V 2 = Input Voltage on the inverting pin. V out = Output Voltage.

Inverting, Non-inverting Inverting, Non-inverting Inverting :- Amplifies the signal with a controlled gain. Non-inverting :- Amplifies the signal with a controlled gain and invert it. A = V out / V in = - R f / R i A = V out / V in = 1 + (R f / R i )

Comparator At V input > V ref V o =+V supply At V input < V ref V o =-V supply

8. Logic Gates Logic gates have many different families and types but we will discuss :-  AND  OR  NOT

NOT gate 7404 NOT gate 7404

AND gate 7408 AND gate 7408

OR gate 7432 OR gate 7432

Application Application They are the main structure of the logic designs. Used in the integrated circuits to make flip flops, counters and shift registers and so on.

9. Boards Definition Types of boards Types of components How to make a PCB

Definition Definition It is a board that allows us to wire the electronic component together with little number of wires.

Types Types Bread board  Just used once and we use tin to fix the component to it. Test Board  Can be used several times as the component are fixed and can be replaced from it

Types of Components Types of Components Surface mount  Components that don’t need drilling in the board. Through hole  Components that need drilling in the board.

How to make a PCB ?! How to make a PCB ?! PCB is the way we translate the simulated circuits into our physical world. It has a 3 way of representation. 1- Prepared PCBs 2- Manual PCBs 3- Semi Manually PCBs There are fully automated processes where we use machines to finish the PCB.

Questions ?

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