3 ResistorA resistor is a two-terminal passive electronic component. It is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device such as a transistor.Symbol:
4 S.I unit is ohmSymbol of ohm (Ω)Notation for resistanceO- for ohmK- for kilo ohmM- for mega ohm
5 1. Fixed type resistor 2. Variable type resistor Types of resistor1. Fixed type resistor2. Variable type resistor
6 Combination of resistor series combinationparallel combination
9 CONTI…. In series the current remains same In parallel the voltage remains same
10 Ohms lawOhm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between them.The mathematical equation that describes this relationship is:
14 A capacitor is a device for storing electric charge A capacitor is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator).
15 CAPACITANCEThis is a measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge.A large capacitance means that more charge can be stored.Capacitance can be measured using formula:q = C VwhereC = capacitance,q= charge,V = potential difference.Unit of Capacitance is Farads(F).
16 Combination of capacitors Series combinationParallel combination
17 Series combinationWhen capacitors are connected in series, the capacitance decreases.In Series, total capacitance is given by the formula:1/Ct= 1/C1+1/C2+………
18 Parallel combinationWhen capacitors are connected in parallel, the capacitance increases.In Parallel, total capacitance is given by the formula:Ct= C1+ C2+………Cn
19 Types of capacitorPolarized capacitorNon polarized capacitor
20 Non Polarized capacitor The capacitor which do not have a polarity
21 Polarised capacitorThe capacitor which have a polarity
26 DiodeDiode is an electronic component which permits the flow of current in one direction only.Today diodes are made up of semiconductor material, therefore they are often called semiconductor diodes or crystal diodes.
27 Why we use it? Diodes are used for rectification. Diodes are used in electrical meters for there protection.Diodes are used in wave shaping circuits.Diodes (LED) are used in display.
28 Material Diodes are semiconductor devices. Silicon(Si) or germanium(Ge) are used.
30 PN Junction Diode This diode is made by p-type & n-type material. This PN junction diode works in forward bias i.e. anode is connected to positive terminal & cathode is connected to negative terminal.
38 Photo Diode Often known as Photo detector. Photo Diode operates in reverse bias.Light falls on the PN junction of the photo diode which creates electron-hole pair in the depletion layer which causes flow of current.Current depends upon the light intensityWhen light incident on the photodiode then current flows in the circuit.
41 LDR(Light Dependent Resistor) A light dependent resistor is a semiconductor electrical device that has a very high resistance to the flow of electrical current in t absence of light.When light strikes the device, it lowers its resistance, allowing electrical current to flow through it and on to other devices or electrical circuits.
44 TRANSISTORA transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.Device with three terminals where one terminal can be use to control the flow of current through the other two terminals.Its name indicates it definition means transferring of resistance from one point to other point.
45 Conti….The three terminals are Emitter, Base and Collector
46 Types of transistorJunction transistorField effect transistor
47 Junction transistor Transistor are of two types: 1-> n-p-n A straight switch2-> p-n-pA inverted switch
48 n-p-n as a switchWhen base of n-p-n is connected with logic high voltage then it short circuit emitter and collector (SWITCH ON).When base of n-p-n is connected with logic low voltage then it open circuit both emitter and collector (SWITCH OFF).
49 Circuit diagram to show a switching VCCLogictransistorMotoroffstop1onrunLogic 1orRBLogic 0MGND
50 p-n-p as an inverted switch When base of p-n-p is connected with logic high voltage then it open circuit emitter and collector (SWITCH OFF).When base of p-n-p is connected with logic low voltage then it short circuit both emitter and collector (SWITCH ON).
51 Practically usedAs a switchAs an amplifierFor realizing logic gates
56 Conti…. L293D is a dual H-Bridge motor driver. So with one IC we can interface two DC motors which can be controlled in both clockwise and counter clockwise directionIf you have motor with fix direction of motion then you can make use of all the four I/Os to connect up to four DC motors.L293D has output current of 600mA.Moreover for protection of circuit from back EMF output diodes are included within the IC.
59 The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a timer application, pulse generation and oscillator applications.It works only on falling edge of the incoming signal
60 Operating modes: It has three operating modes: 1) monostable 2) Bistable3) Astable
61 Monostable mode In this mode, the IC has only one stable state voltage triggering pulsevoltageoutputtime
62 Bistable modeIn this mode, the IC has two stable state
63 Astable modeIn this mode, the IC not having a single stable state
64 LM358The LM358 IC consists of two independent operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages.It have two op-ampSingle power supply