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“There are three classes of people: those who see

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Presentation on theme: "“There are three classes of people: those who see"— Presentation transcript:

1 Overview PLCopen - IEC 61131 - 3
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.”  Leonardo da Vinci (Italian draftsman, Painter, Sculptor, Architect and Engineer whose genius epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal ) "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.“ Arthur Charles Clarke 1

2 IEC = International Electro-technical Commission
The goal of this presentation is to provide the attendees with information and a review of the IEC control system automation software standard which is an open (non-propriety) based standard applicable to the implementation of a PLC Open system including the application of Field Bus technology. The attendees will gain knowledge involving the IEC software standard utilizing RTU/PLC/DCS. IEC = International Electro-technical Commission A World organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical and electronic related technologies Founded in 1906 * Over 50 participating countries * Different levels of membership

3 What is the IEC 61131 standard ?
IEC is an international standard for programmable controllers consisting of 5 parts: Part 1: General information Part 2: Equipment characteristics Part 3: Programming languages Part 4: User guidelines Part 5: Communication

4 IEC 61131 and PLC Open – Mission
PLC Open is a vendor and product independent world-wide organization that brings greater value to users of Industrial Control Systems through the pursuit of the IEC software development standard

5 Goals of IEC 61131.3 and PLC Open
PLC Open Certification and compliance testing Definition of several levels of IEC compliance (Base Level, Portability Level, Full compliance Level) Establish strict test procedures Establish certification tests at independent test institutes Ultimate Goal: Portability of PLC programs Program once run on any hardware platform not hardware specific or dependent

6 Table of contents Advantages of IEC61131-3 for programmers
History and international standards 1970 to 1995 7 parts of the IEC standard IEC software models the 5 languages of the IEC FBs (Function blocks) and POUs (Programmable Organizational Units) IEC data types, standard functions and standard function blocks PLCopen certification

7 Table of contents - continued
PLCopen compliance levels PLCopen training logo PLCopen address "Concern for man himself and his fate must always form the chief interest of all technical endeavors, concern for the great unsolved problems of the organization of labor and the distribution of goods--in order that the creations of our mind shall be a blessing and not a curse to mankind. Never forget this in the midst of your diagrams and equations." Albert Einstein

8 Advantages of IEC 61131-3 International accepted standard
Step by step all suppliers will support it Uniform structures, languages, and the way of handling It saves you time Unique software model and data/ type concept You only have to learn it once for different controller types Reduced misunderstandings and errors Standard functions and function blocks Reusability of tested software 3

9 Advantages of IEC 61131-3 Supports safety and quality programming
Easy and comfortable structuring Data typing prohibits programming errors Provides the best language for each problem Consistent specifications of 5 languages Two textual and two graphical languages One structuring language, providing an overview Availability of high level language Possibility to mix different languages 4

10 International Language Standardization
NEMA Programmable Controllers Committee formed (USA) GRAFCET (France) DIN 40719, Function Charts (Germany) NEMA ICS-3-304, Programmable Controllers (USA) IEC SC65A/WG6 formed DIN , Programmable Controller (Germany) IEC 65A(Sec)38, Programmable Controllers MIL-STD-1815 Ada (USA) IEC SC65A(Sec)49, PC Languages IEC SC65A(Sec)67 IEC 848, Function Charts IEC 64A(Sec)90 IEC Type 3 report recommendation IEC name change 70 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 Source: Dr. J. Christensen 5

11 The 7 Parts of The IEC 61131 Standard
Part 1 General overview, definitions IS Part 2 Hardware IS Part 3 Programming Languages IS Part 4 User Guidelines IS Part 5 Communication IS Part 7 Fuzzy Logic IS Part 8 Technical Report IS = International Standard 6

12 IEC 61131 - Part 1 - General Overview
Definitions and glossary of terms used in the standard List of related / referenced IEC standards Principal functional characteristics of programmable controller systems 7

13 IEC Part 2 - Hardware Electrical, mechanical and functional requirements for Programmable Controllers and associated peripherals Service, storage and transportation conditions Information to be supplied by manufacturer Test methods and procedures for verification of compliance of programmable controllers and associated peripherals 8

14 IEC 61131 - Part 3 - Programming Languages
Software-, communication- and programming-model Definition of five interlinked programming languages Syntax and semantics of two textual and two graphical languages: Instruction List (IL), Structured Text (ST), Ladder Diagram (LD) and Function Block Diagram (FBD) Sequential Function Chart (SFC) for program structuring 9

15 IEC 61131 - Part 4 User Guidelines
Assists the user in: Utilizing the other parts of the programmable controller standard Specifying the requirements for applications Selecting and implementing systems 10

16 IEC 61131 - Part 5 Communication
Based on MMS (Manufacturing Message Specifications) (still in progress) 11

17 IEC Part 7 Fuzzy Logic Provides the definition of fuzzy control sets 11

18 IEC 61131 - Part 8 Technical Report
Provides guidelines for the application and implementation of programming languages for programmable controller 11

19 IEC 61131-3 Software Model Configuration A
Resource L Resource L Task1 Task2 Task3 Task4 Program P1 Program P2 Program P3 Program P4 FB1 FB2 FB3 FB4 global and direct addressed variables access paths Task association Access path association 12

20 OB - Organization Block FC - Function FB - Function Block
Operating System OB1 FC FB Other OBs OB - Organization Block FC - Function FB - Function Block Memory

21 Definition of Software Model Terms
Configuration A language element corresponding to a programmable controller system Resource A language element corresponding to a signal processing function and its human-machine interface and sensor actuator functions, like a CPU in your system Task An execution control element providing for periodic or triggered execution of a group of associated program organization units Program Highest level program organization unit, several in - and outputs possible, can call FBs and Functions FB Program organization unit Function Block, several in - and outputs possible, can call other FBs and Functions 13

22 IEC 61131-3: The Common Elements
Character set (English ) Data types (BOOL, WORD, INTEGER ) Variables (VAR, VAR_input, VAR_output ) POUs, Program Organisation Units (Function, Function Block...) SFC Elements (Steps, Transitions ) Configuration elements : (Tasks) Basis for software re-use

23 IEC 61131-3 Elementary Data Types
No Keyword Data Type Bits 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BOOL SINT INT DINT LINT USINT UINT UDINT ULINT REAL LREAL TIME DATE TIME_OF_DAY or TOD DATE_AND_TIME or DT STRING BYTE WORD DWORD LWORD Boolean Short integer Integer Double integer Long integer Unsigned short integer Unsigned integer Unsigned double integer Unsigned long integer Real numbers Long reals Duration Date (only) Time of day (only) Date and time of day Character string Bit string of length 8 Bit string of length 16 Bit string of length 32 Bit string of length 64 32 64 IEC Elementary Data Types

24 Directly represented variables – Hardware Addressable Inputs and Outputs The identifier of a directly represented variable always begins with "%" character. Below are the naming conventions of a directly represented variable for a channel of a single board. "s" is the slot number of the board. "c" is the number of the channel. %IXs.c free channel of a Boolean input %IDs.c free channel of an integer input %ISs.c free channel of a message input %QXs.c free channel of a Boolean output %QDs.c free channel of an integer output %QSs.c free channel of a message output Below are the naming conventions of a directly represented variable for a channel of a complex equipment. "s" is the slot number of the equipment. "b" is the index of the single board within the complex equipment. "c" is the number of the channel. %IXs.b.c free channel of a Boolean input %IDs.b.c free channel of an integer input %ISs.b.c free channel of a message input %QXs.b.c free channel of a Boolean output %QDs.b.c free channel of an integer output %QSs.b.c free channel of a message output Below are examples: %QX1.6 is the 6th channel of the board #1 (Boolean output) %ID2.1.7 is the 7th channel of the board #1 in the equipment #2 (integer input)

25 The 5 Languages of IEC Instruction List Structured Text Sequential Function Chart LD A ANDN B ST C C:= A AND NOT B Step N FILL Step 3 Step S Empty Transition 1 Transition 2 Function Block Diagram Ladder Diagram A B C -| |--|/| ( ) AND A C B 15

26 Ladder Diagram (LD) Standardized, rationalized set of relay ladder programming symbols Based on well-known US-style of programming, resembling electrical drawing standard A B C -| |--|/| ( ) 16

27 -| |--|/|----------------( )
Ladder Diagram (LD) Ladder Diagram (LD) is a graphic representation of Boolean equations, combining contacts (input arguments) with coils (output results). The LD language enables the description of tests and modifications of Boolean data by placing graphic symbols into the program chart. LD graphic symbols are organized within the chart exactly as an electric contact diagram. LD diagrams are connected on the left side and on the right side to vertical power rails. A and not B equals C -| |--|/| ( )

28 Instruction List (IL) Single Accumulator based execution model
Based upon the German ‘Anweisungsliste’, AWL Only one operation such as storing a value in the accumulator register, is allowed per line LD A ANDN B ST C 17

29 Instruction List (IL) Instruction List, or IL is a low level language. It is highly effective for smaller applications or for optimizing parts of an application. Instructions always relate to the current result (or IL register). The processor indicates the operation that must be made between the current value and the operand. The result of the operation is stored again in the current result. LD IX1 (* push button *) ANDN MX5 (* command is not forbidden *) ST QX2 (* start motor *)

30 Structured Text (ST) High level language, block structured
Syntax resembles PASCAL Complex statements and nested instructions possible Support for Iteration loops (REPEAT-UNTIL; WHILE-DO) Conditional execution (IF-THEN-ELSE; CASE) Functions (SQRT(), SIN()) C:= A AND NOT B 18

31 High level language, Syntaxed structured
Syntax resembles traditional programming code such as C++, JAVA, PASCAL Complex statements and nested instructions possible Support for Iteration loops (REPEAT-UNTIL; WHILE-DO) Conditional execution (IF-THEN-ELSE; CASE) Advanced Math Functions (SQRT(), SIN()) C:= A AND NOT B Applications with complex calculations and data processing examples would involve two phase flow calculations, gas calculations, etc.

32 Function Block Diagram (FBD)
Graphical language, widely used in Europe Allows program elements which appear as blocks to be "wired" together in a form analogous to a circuit diagram Used in many applications that involve the flow of information or data between control components AND A C B 19

33 Most applications apply to analog control
Graphical language, widely used in Distributed Control Systems (DCS) and Analog intensive control systems Allows program elements which appear as blocks (Function Blocks) to be connected together in a form analogous to a circuit diagram Most applications apply to analog control Used in many applications that involve the flow of information or data between control component Examples include PID and analog scaling AND A C B

34 Sequential Function Chart (SFC)
Graphical language which provides a diagrammatic representation of program sequences --> flowchart Based on the French Grafcet (IEC 848) Main structure and suitable for rapid diagnostics The basic elements are steps with action blocks and transitions Steps consist of a piece of program that is carried out until a condition specified in the transition is met Programming of complex tasks by dividing in smaller parts Each element can be programmed in any of the IEC- languages such as LD or ST or IL or FB mix or match any of the languages Step N FILL Step 3 Step S Empty Transition 1 Transition 2 20

35 Step 1 Transition Step 2 Action 1 Action 2
Technological programming language for describing Sequential Controls Structured program draft Description of the process with steps and transitions Clear, easy to understand by the process, production and operations staff Application examples Presses and Packaging technology Production lines Process technology (start up – shutdown) OEM equipment machinery technology Rotating Machinery e.g. compressors, pumps Step 1 Transition Step 2 Action 1 Action 2

36 POU = Program Organization Unit
POU’s enable re-use of software from macro level (Programs) to micro level (FB and Functions). A POU consists of a header (variable declaration) and the body (instructions). 22

37 IEC 61131-3 Standard Datatypes
Bit string types (BOOL, BYTE, WORD, DWORD, LWORD) Integer types (SINT, INT, DINT, LINT) Unsigned integer types (USINT, UINT, UDINT, ULINT) Real types (REAL, LREAL) Time types (TIME, DATE, TIME_OF_DAY, DATE_AND_TIME) Character types (STRING) Vendor and user defined data types are possible Direct derived, sub range, enumeration Array, structure 23

38 IEC 61131-3 Standard Functions
Bit string functions (AND, OR, XOR, NOT, SHL, SHR, ROL, ROR) Numerical functions (ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV, MOD, EXPT, ABS, SQRT, LN, LOG, EXP, SIN, COS, TAN, ASIN, ACOS, ATAN) Type conversions (e.g. USINT_TO_DINT, BOOL_TO_BYTE) Selection functions (SEL, MIN, MAX, LIMIT, MUX) Comparison functions (GT, GE, EQ, LT, LE, NE) String functions (LEN, LEFT, RIGHT, MID, CONCAT, INSERT, DELETE, REPLACE, FIND) Vendor and user defined functions are possible 24

39 IEC 61131-3 Standard Function Blocks
Bitable (SR, RS, SEMA) Edge detection (R_TRIG, F_TRIG) Counters (CTU, CTD, CTUD) Timers (TP, TON, TOF, RTC) Vendor and user defined function blocks are possible 25

40 PLCopen Mission We want to be the leading association resolving topics related to control programming to support the use of international standards in this field. 26

41 PLCopen PLCopen was founded on June 15, 1992 in Giessen, Germany.
Target was to promote IEC , inform customers and give more weight to the IEC standard. PLCopen Standardization in Industrial Control programming TC6

42 The Essence of Compliance without testing there is no standard
The IEC standard gives rules for compliancy Certification gives guidance for users towards real IEC programming systems (e.g. PLCopen certified list shows compliant products) 27

43 PLCopen Compliance Level
To take away the confusion, PLCopen.... .... has defined 2 levels of compliance with a defined set of features .... has defined an accreditation procedure .... has accredited test institutes .... developed test software, shared amongst members .... has defined a certification procedure .... and has members with certified products This assures compliance now, and in the future. 28

44 PLCopen Compliance Levels
Application Program FB Variable Code Body Conformity Level & Reusability Level Re-usability of Function (Block) libraries Base Level Portability of minimal systems 29

45 Compliance Certified products can use these logo’s 30

46 PLCopen Training Logo 31

47 PLCopen P.O. Box 2015 NL 5300 CA Zaltbommel
The Netherlands Tel: Fax: 31

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