2 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Programmable logic controllers are special-purpose computers optimized for industrial control tasks.PLC has interfacing for input and output devices such as transducers, switches, and motors.
3 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) The PLC:implements functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, arithmetic as well as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control modes.has a programmable memory to store instructions.can be programmed using several programming languages.
4 Types of PLCThe PLCs can be classified intoSmall PLCModular PLC
5 Small PLCThey are small self-contained PLC units for use with e.g. 20 digital inputs and outputs points.
6 Modular PLC unitsModular systems are extendible by adding input or output modules as needed.Therefore, they can be used for large numbers of inputs/outputs.
14 Relay type outputThe signal from the PLC output is used to operate a relay.Relay output is able to switch currents of the order of a few amperes in an external circuit.Suitable for a.c. and d.c. switching.Slow to operate.Optoisolators (optocouplers) are used to provide isolation for all output types.
15 Transistor type output Uses a transistor to switch current through the external circuit.A considerably faster switching action.Strictly for d.c. switching.Destroyed by overcurrent and high reverse voltage. As a protection, a fuse is used.
16 Triac outputUses a triac to switch current through the external circuit.A considerably faster switching action.It is strictly used to control external loads which are connected to a.c. power supply (because it needs the zero crossing to turn off, it would not switch off on d.c.).It is very easily destroyed by overcurrent. Fuses are virtually always included to protect such outputs.
17 I/O addressesIn PLC, the inputs and outputs are identified by their addresses.This is the address of the input or output in the memory of the PLC.Each PLC manufacturer has its own notations for addressing input and outputs.
18 I/O Numbering: Siemens Q2.0I designates a logic inputQ designates a logic output.The first number identifies the byte.The second number identifies the bit.Image register space for digital I/O is always reserved in increments of eight bits (one byte).
19 I/O Numbering: LG %Q0.2.0 %I0.0.0 I designates a logic input and Q designates a logic output.The first number identifies the base number.The second number identifies the slot.The third number identifies the bit.
20 PLC programming languages There are several PLC programming languages such as:ladder diagrams (LAD),instruction list (IL),sequential function charts (SFC),
21 Ladder programmingLadder programming is intended to be used by engineers without any great knowledge of programming.It became adopted by most PLC manufacturers. However each have developed their own versions.
22 Ladder diagramsWays of drawing the same electrical circuit
23 The Rung power rails In ladder diagrams this symbol is called a contact and represents an input to the PLC.In ladder diagrams this symbol is called a coil and represents an output from the PLC.
24 Ladder programVertical lines are called power rails while Horizontal lines are called rungs.Each rung on the ladder defines one operation in the control process.
25 Ladder programming notes Each rung must start with an input or inputs and must end with at least one output.The term input is used for a control action, such as closing the contacts of a switch connected as an input to the PLC.The term output is used for a device connected to the output of a PLC, e.g. a motor.A particular device can appear in more than one rung of a ladder.
27 Normally Open/Normally Closed Notation Electrical devices are shown in their normal condition.Thus a switch which is normally open (NO) until some object closes it, is shown as open on the ladder diagram.A switch that is normally closed (NC) is shown closed.
28 ExampleWhat is the logic statement that describes the relationship between the output and input for each of the following two examples?Output = AOutput = A
29 ReferencesProgrammable Logic Controllers, W. Bolton., 4th edition, ELSEVIER, 2006.Programmable Logic Controllers: Programming Methods and Applications, John Hackworth and Frederick Hackworth, Prentice Hall, 2003.