Presentation on theme: "TODAY WE ARE GOING TO DO A PROJECT ON THE FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES. SO LISTEN WELL WHILE WE ARE SPEAKING. NO SHOUTING, NO GOSSIPING, JUST MAINTAIN."— Presentation transcript:
TODAY WE ARE GOING TO DO A PROJECT ON THE FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES. SO LISTEN WELL WHILE WE ARE SPEAKING. NO SHOUTING, NO GOSSIPING, JUST MAINTAIN A PIN DROP SILENCE. NOW, WE WILL START OUR PRESENTATION. A SHORT NOTE FOR YOU ALL
We humans along with the other living organisms form a complex web of ecological system in which we are only a part and very much dependent on this system for our own existence. Forests play a key role in the ecological system as they are the primary producers on which all other living beings depend.
Biodiversity means inherited variations within species, the variety of species in an area, and the variety of habitat types within a landscape. In other words it refers to the variety of living organisms. It is an interconnected web in which every organisms has a role. Various organisms play different roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers. It is on these roles that other organisms, including humans, depend for their existence. The existence of millions of living beings- animals, plants and human beings simultaneously is known as BIODIVERSITY. Flora And fauna + Human beings =
IMPORTANCE OF BIO DIVERSITY Human beings depend on biodiversity for their very survival. Without plants and animals we cannot survive. Plants create the quality of air we breathe in.
India is one of the world’s richest countries in the terms of its vast range of biological diversity and has nearly 8 per cent of the total number of species in the world (estimated to be 1.6 millions)
CLASSIFICATIONS BASED ON THE INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATIONAL RESOURCES (IUCN) NORMAL SPECIES- Species whose population levels are considered to be normal for their survival, such as cattle, sal, pine, rodents, etc. ENDANGERED SPECIES- These are species which are in danger of extinction. The survival of such species is difficult if their population continue to operate. The examples of such species are black buck, crocodiles, Indian rhinos, lion tailed macaque, sangai (brown anter deer in Manipur), etc. VULNERABLE SPECIES- These are species whose population has declined to levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative factors continue to operate. The examples of such species are blue sheep, Asiatic elephants, Gangetic dolphins, etc.
RARE SPECIES- Species with small population may move into the endangered or vulnerable category if the negative factors affecting them continue to operate. The examples of such species are the Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox and horn bill, etc. ENDEMIC SPECIES- These are species which are only found in some particular areas usually isolated by nature or geographical barriers. Examples of such species are the Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, mithun in Arunachal Pradesh. EXTINCT SPECIES- These are species which are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur. A species may be extinct from a local area, region, country, continent or the entire earth. Examples of such species are the Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck.
The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 Government of India enacted wild life protection act of 1972 with the objective to control poaching and illegal trade in wild life. The act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds, and plants by banning hunting, giving legal protection to their habitats, and restricting trade in wildlife. Subsequently, central and many state governments established national parks and wild life sanctuaries.
The problem of overcrowding is one of the major reasons for the depleting population of wild animals in India. The wildlife sanctuaries of India have become overcrowded and their capacity has decreased to quite an extent. With the increase in tourism, the parks have witnessed an increase in wildfires also. Innocent campfires started by visitors have, more often than not, led to menacing wildfires. These fires not only kill animals, but also destroy their natural habitat. Last but not the least, the threat of poaching has been haunting the wildlife of India since ages. Even after the establishment of wildlife sanctuaries and national parks, the threat of poaching has not been totally eliminated.
VANISHING FORESTS Forests cover 637,293 sq km, which is 19.39% of the total geographical area. Dense forests 11.48% Open Forests 7.76% Mangrove 0.15%
The main causes of depletion of flora and fauna are: 1.Agricultural Expansion 2.Enrichment Plantation 3.Development Project
Agricultural Expansion Between 1951 and 1980, according to the forest survey of India, over 26,200 sp km of forest area was converted into agricultural land all over India. Especially in the north eastern and central India have been deforested or degraded by shifting cultivation (Jhun), a type of ‘slash and burn’ agriculture ENRICHMENT PLANTATION Promotion of a few favored species, in many parts of India, has been carried through the ironically termed ‘Enrichment Plantation’, in which a single commercially valuable species was extensively planted other species eliminated. DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS Large scale development projects have also contributed significantly to the loss of forest. Since 1951, over 5,000 sp km of forest was cleared for river valley projects. Clearing of forests is still continuing with projects like the Narmada Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh, which would inundate 40,000 hectares of forests.
SOCIAL EFFECTS OF RESOURCE DEPLETION In many societies, women bear the major responsibility of collection of fuel fodder, water, and other basic subsistence needs. As these resources are depleted, the drudgery of women increases and sometimes they have to walk for more than 10 kms to collect these resources. This causes serious health problems for women and negligence of home and children because of the increased hours of work, which often has serious social implications. The indirect impact of degradation such as severe drought or deforestation- induced floods, etc. Also hits the poor the hardest. Poverty in these cases is a direct outcome environmental destruction.
BENEFITS OF CONSERVATION Conservation preserves the ecological diversity and our life support system- water, air and soil. It also preserves the genetic diversity of plants and animals for their better growth of species and breeding. For e.g, in agriculture, we are still dependent on traditional crop varieties. Fisheries too are heavily dependent on the maintenances of aquatic bio-diversity. THE EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION ARE: It accelerates soil erosion and affects underground flow of water adversely. Depletion of forests leads to disappearance of wildlife as well as many wild varieties of plants.
AFFORESTAION PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN ENHANCING THE QUALITY OF ENVIRONMENT It modifies local climate. It influences air temperature and reduces wind force. A forestation helps in controlling soil erosion A forestation provides natural environment for wild life. A forestation helps in enhancing the quantity of rain
CLASSIFICATION OF FORESTS RESERVED FORESTS: Reserved forests are the forests that are regarded as the most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wild life resources are concerned. More than half of the total forest land has been declared reserved forest. PROTECTED FORESTS: This forest land is protected from any further depletion. Almost 1/3 of the total forest area is protected forest, as declared by the Forest Department(FD) of the total forest covers 29.2% are the protected forests. UNCLASSED FORESTS: These are other forest of waste land that belongs to both government and private individual and communities. Here no restriction are imposed but because of the inaccessibility and hostile terrain, nobody can easily make use of them. Of the total forest cover 16% are the unclassed forests. RESERVED FORESTS: Reserved forests are the forests that are regarded as the most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wild life resources are concerned. More than half of the total forest land has been declared reserved forest. PROTECTED FORESTS: This forest land is protected from any further depletion. Almost 1/3 of the total forest area is protected forest, as declared by the Forest Department(FD) of the total forest covers 29.2% are the protected forests. UNCLASSED FORESTS: These are other forest of waste land that belongs to both government and private individual and communities. Here no restriction are imposed but because of the inaccessibility and hostile terrain, nobody can easily make use of them. Of the total forest cover 16% are the unclassed forests.