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Collecting primary data using questionnaires

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1 Collecting primary data using questionnaires
Lecture 12 Professional Development and Research Lecturer: R. Milyankova

2 Collecting primary data using questionnaires
Objectives of this session: To understand the advantages and disadvantages of questionnaires as a data collection method To be aware of range of self-administered and interviewer-administered questionnaires To be aware of possible need to combine techniques within a research project To be able to design, pilot and administer a questionnaire to answer research questions and to meet objectives To be able to apply the knowledge, skills and understanding gained to your own research project

3 Questionnaire – a definition
General definition: All techniques of data collection in which each person is asked to respond to the same set of questions in a predetermined order (de Vaus, 2002) It includes structured interviews and telephone questionnaires as well as questionnaires in which questions are answered without the interviewer to be presented

4 Response rate, validity and reliability can be maximized by:
Careful design of individual questions Clear layout of the questionnaire form Clear explanation of the purpose of the questionnaire Pilot testing Carefully planned and executed administration

5 When to use questionnaires?
Not good for exploratory research that requires large number of open questions Good for descriptive research – attitude and opinion questions or qs of organizational practices, describing the variability of different phenomena Explanatory or analytical research – enables to examine relationship between variables in a particular cause-effect relationships

6 Types of questionnaires
On-line Postal Delivery and collection Self-administered Telephone Structured Interview Interviewer administered Questionnaires

7 The choice of questionnaire
Influenced by factors related to the: characteristics of the respondents from whom you wish to collect data importance of reaching a particular person as a respondent importance of answers not being contaminated or distorted size of sample you require for your analysis, taking into account the response rate types of questions you need to ask to collect your data number of questions you need to ask Contamination of results – uninformed response (guess at the answer) Longer questionnaires are better presented by structured interviews

8 The choice of questionnaire depends on:
Time available to complete the data collection Financial implications of data collection and entry Availability of interviewers and field workers to assist Ease of automating data entry CAPI – computer aided personal interviewing CATI – computer aided telephone interviewing

9 What data need to be collected?
If explanatory research: Relationships between variables? Which variables are dependent? (Change in response to changes in other variables) Which variables are independent? (cause changes in independent variables) Which variables are extraneous? (may also cause changes in dependent variables)

10 Types of variables Attitude (opinion) Belief Behaviour Attribute
how respondents feel about something Belief what respondents think or believe is true or false Behaviour what respondents do Attribute characteristics of respondents

11 Types of variable Attitude
How do you feel about the following statement? ‘Financial advisors should place their clients’ interest before their own’. (please tick the appropriate box) strongly agree mildly agree neither agree or disagree mildly disagree strongly disagree

12 Types of variable Belief
In general, do financial advisors place their clients’ interests before their own? (please tick the appropriate box) always yes usually yes sometimes yes seldom yes never yes

13 Types of variable Behaviour
How often do you place your clients’ interests before your own? (please tick the appropriate box) 80-100% of my time 60-79% of my time 40-59% of my time 20-39% of my time 0-19% of my time

14 Types of variable Attribute How old are you?
(please tick the appropriate box) less than 30 years 30 to less than 40 years 40 to less than 50 years 50 to less than 60 years 60 years or over

15 How to ensure that the data collected will enable the research questions to be answered?
Decide whether the main outcome of your research is descriptive or explanatory Subdivide each research question or objective into more specific investigative questions about which you need to gather data Repeat the second stage if you feel that the investigative questions are not sufficiently precise Identify the variables about which you need to collect data to answer each investigative question Establish how to measure the data for each variable

16 Data requirements table:
How to ensure that the data collected will enable the research questions to be answered? Data requirements table: Research question / objective: Type of research: Investigative questions Do employees feel that they should be able to smoke in their office if they want to as a right (opinion) Variables required Opinion of employees to smoke in their office as a right Detail in which data measured Should be allowed, should not be allowed, no strong feelings Check included in questionnaire

17 Designing the questionnaire
The validity and reliability depend on: the design of your questions the structure of your questionnaire the rigor of your pilot testing

18 Stages if a question is to be valid and reliable
Researcher is clear about the information required and designs a question Researcher decodes the answer in the way the respondent intended Respondent decodes the question in the way the researcher intended Respondent answers the question Foddy (1994)

19 Designing individual questions
Adopt questions used in other questionnaires Adapt questions used in other questionnaires Develop your own questions 3 Scan a multitude of information and decide what is important. 1 Manage time effectively 2 Manage resources effectively. 4 Decide how to manage multiple tasks. 5 Organize the work when directions are not specific. Rating Sheet

20 Types Of Questions Open = open-ended Closed = forced-choice
List – list of items to be selected Category – only one response may be selected Ranking – to place information in order Scale or rating – rating device is used Quantity – response gives the amount Grid - responses to two or more questions can be recorded using the sane matrix

21 Types Of Questions A. Unstructured / Open B. Structured / Closed

22 Open Questions Please list up to three things you like about your job:
1. ………………………………… 2. ………………………………… 3. …………………………………

23 Structured Questions I. List questions X X
Please tick the box in the provided column for services you provided as a home care assistant for this client in the past month: Service Provided cleaning rooms shopping bed making laundry other (please describe) …………………... X

24 Structured Questions II. Category questions X
How often do you visit this shopping centre? First visit 2 or more times a week Once a week Less than once a week to fortnightly Less than fortnightly Less often to once a month X

25 Structured Questions III. Ranking and scale questions
Dichotomous scale ____Yes ____No Male Female

26 Structured Questions Ordinal scale
Rank the candidates in order of preference from best to worst... ___ Bob Dole ___ Bill Clinton ___ Newt Gingrich ___ Al Gore ___ George Bush

27 Structured Questions Interval scale Likert Response Scale
strongly disagree neutral agree strongly disagree agree

28 Structured Questions Interval scale Semantic Differential etc.
very some- neither some- very much what what much interesting boring simple complex uncaring caring useful useless etc.

29 Structured Questions Interval scale Guttman (Cumulative) Scale
___Are you willing to permit immigrants to live in your country? ___Are you willing to permit immigrants to live in your community? ___Are you willing to permit immigrants to live in your neighborhood? ___Would you be willing to have an immigrant live next door to you? ___Would you let your child marry an immigrant?

30 What is your year of birth?
Structured Questions IV. Quantity questions What is your year of birth? 1 9 V. Grid questions

31 Filter or Contingency Questions
V. Grid questions Have you ever smoked marijuana? yes no

32 Filter or Contingency Questions
Have you ever smoked marijuana? yes no If yes, about how many times have you smoked marijuana? Once 2 to 5 times 6 to 10 times 11 to 20 times more than 20 times

33 Filter or Contingency Questions
try to avoid having more than three levels (two jumps) for any question if only two levels, use graphic to jump (e.g., arrow and box) if possible, jump to a new page

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