Presentation on theme: "Designing and Analyzing Questionnaires"— Presentation transcript:
1 Designing and Analyzing Questionnaires Dr. GeneEducation Institute
2 Purpose of Questionnaires Questionnaires are the most common data collection methods used in research. They can be used to assess:AttitudesOpinionsInterestsValues
3 Advantages and Disadvantages Can assess a large group quicklyEasy to analyze if constructed correctlyDisadvantagesRequires “good” language skillsSome people give answers they think you wantNot very good for getting in-depth information
4 Types of Questionnaires StructuredRespondents select a response from those givenUnstructuredRespondents create a responseCombinationContains structured and unstructured items
5 Sample Structured Questionnaire Why did you choose teaching as a career? Tick each reason that applies to you.___ I like working with children.___ The pay is better than most jobs.___ I can help my country and society.___ It is a safe profession for women.
6 Sample Unstructured Questionnaire Why did you choose teaching as a career? In the space below give the reasons why you chose to become a teacher.
7 Types of Questions Closed questions Open questions Choices are provided to the respondentsOpen questionsRespondents must create responsesDemographic questionsQuestions about the characteristics of the respondents
8 Types of Closed Questions Dichotomous Questions (2 choices)Yes/NoAgree/DisagreeDo you think a paper recycling program should be started in your school?Yes No
9 Types of Closed Questions Multiple-choice QuestionsGive respondents optionsMay ask for single or multiple answersExample:How did you hear about our Website?___ Newspaper___ Magazine___ Radio___ Internet___ Other: Please specify __________
10 Types of Closed Questions Rank Order QuestionsRespondents place things in orderExample:Which activities do you like to do in your spare time? Place a “1” next to the activity that you like to do most, a “2” by the next favorite, and so on to the least favorite.___ Watch TV___ Read___ Visit friends___ Surf the Internet___ Shop
11 Types of Closed Questions Rating Scale (Semantic Differential)Also called a “Likert Scale”Give a statement; choose your response along a scaleExample:My students are motivated to learn.Strongly DisagreeDisagreeNot SureAgreeStrongly
12 Open Questions Used to explore topics in-depth Gives people a chance to respond in detailThey are time-consuming to summarize and analyze
13 Types of Open Questions Open-ended QuestionsExample:What changes would you like to see in our science class?Stem Plus QuestionsSome things I would like to see change in our science class are _________________
14 Demographic Questions Demographic questions may ask about personal characteristics such as --agegradeethnicitygenderhome characteristics
15 Types of Scales 2-level (yes/no; agree/disagree) 3-level (yes/no/not sure)5-level (Likert scale – Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree, Strongly Disagree)Larger scales are difficult to analyze
16 Neither Agree or Disagree Effects of ScalesThe police need to do a better job of enforcing traffic laws.DisagreeAgree10%90%DisagreeAgree10%90%2-level2-levelDisagreeNeither Agree or DisagreeAgree2%28%70%3-level
17 Effects of ScalesThe police need to do a better job of enforcing traffic laws.Strongly DisagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly Agree1%28%63%7%5-level
18 Problems to Avoid in Writing Questions Leading Questions (Loaded Questions or Biased Questions)Examples:Don’t you agree that discipline is a major problem in this school?Do you believe it is all right to spank young children despite the SEC recommendations not to do so?
19 Problems to Avoid in Writing Questions Double-Barreled Questions (asking two things in one question)Examples:Did this class increase your interest in science and motivate you to study hard?Do you agree that pay is low for teachers and that the government should be working hard to increase it?
20 Problems to Avoid in Writing Questions Unclear or ambiguous questionsExamples:What do you think about school?What role should the principal play in educating students?
21 Problems to Avoid in Writing Questions Halo Effect (questions that link a position to a particular person or group)Examples:Do you agree with the Emir that research should be one of the top priorities of Qatar?Qatar Petroleum wants the Independent Schools to do a better job of teaching science so that students are prepared for the workplace. Would you agree?
22 Problems to Avoid in Writing Questions Invasive questions about personal informationExamples:Do you ever argue with your parents?What are the major problems in your home?
23 Tips for Creating Good Questionnaires Know your audienceMake sure that the length, content, and wording matches the intended audienceKeep questions clear and conciseAvoid technical wording
24 Tips for Creating Good Questionnaires Be certain of your goalsBefore you start writing questions, be clear in your own mind what you want to find out
25 Tips for Creating Good Questionnaires Make the directions and format clear and easy to followPut your directions and demographic questions at the beginning of the questionnaire.If possible, read and explain the directions orally
26 Tips for Creating Good Questionnaires Try the questionnaire out before you use itFind a similar group that is not in your study.Ask them to read the questionnaire and tell you if something is not clear.Revise your questions based on the information you get from your tryouts.
27 Tips for Creating Good Questionnaires Don’t ask too many questionsKeep your questionnaire short and to the pointPeople get tired and lose interest on long questionnaires so the responses you get toward the end may not be valid.
28 Ways to Deliver Questionnaires Paper-pencil/face-to-faceMail or take homeTelephoneOnline delivery and analysis
29 Ways to Analyze The Results of a Structure Questionnaire Summarize the percentages for each questionStudents should be required to wear uniforms to school.Strongly DisagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly Agree10%20%40%
30 Ways to Analyze The Results of a Structure Questionnaire Calculate the mean (average) for each item.Students should be required to wear uniforms to school.Strongly Disagree(1)Disagree(2)Undecided(3)Agree(4)Strongly Agree(5)102040
31 Ways to Analyze The Results of a Structured Questionnaire Calculate the mean (average) for each item.20 x 5 = / 100 = 3.440 x 4 = 16010 x 3 = 3020 x 2 = 2010 x 1 = 10340Strongly StronglyDiagree Disagree3.4
32 Ways to Analyze The Results of an Unstructured Questionnaire Summarize the commentsLook for patterns or themes that run through the commentsGive percentages for major themes