Presentation on theme: "Bellwork: The Ear What is the function of the ear?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Bellwork: The Ear What is the function of the ear? Mrs. Jameson ASLBellwork: The EarWhat is the function of the ear?Are there different parts? If so, can you name them?How does the ear work?What is that sound?5 mintues to answerMrs. Jameson
2 A Story About the Ear Mrs. Mackens Mrs. Jameson ASLA Story About the Ear Mrs. MackensMrs. Jameson
3 Anatomy of the Ear Outer Ear Pinna Ear Canal Outer layer of the eardrumMiddle EarHammerAnvilStirrupInner EarCochleaNervesSemicircular Canals
4 How Sound Travels Hammer Anvil Stirrup First, sound is collected by the pinna (the visible part of the outer ear)Then, it is directed into the outer ear canalNext, sound makes the eardrum vibrateNow, the vibration causes three tiny bones in the inner ear to vibrateHammerAnvilStirrup
5 Vibration of the eardrum Mrs. Jameson ASLVibration of the eardrumEar Drum ModelMrs. Jameson
6 How Sound TravelsFinally, the vibration is transferred to the snail-shaped cochlea in the inner earThe cochlea is lined with sensitive hair cells (cilia)The hair cells (cilia) trigger the generation of nerve signals that are sent to the brain
7 Outer EarPinna- the visible part of the outer ear. It collects sound and directs it into the outer ear canal.Ear Canal- the tube through which sound travels to the eardrumOuter layer of eardrum- (tympanic membrane) vibrates when sound waves reach it
8 Middle Ear Hammer (Malleus)- a tiny bone that passes vibrations Mrs. Jameson ASLMiddle EarHammer (Malleus)- a tiny bone that passes vibrationsAnvil (Incus)- a tiny bone that passes vibrations from the hammer to the stirrupStirrup (Stapes)- a tiny, U-shaped bone that passes vibrations from the stirrup to the cochlea. This is the smallest bone in the human body. (.25 to .33 cm long)Eustachian tube- a tube that connects the middle ear to the back of the nose; it equalizes the pressure between the middle ear and the air outside.Smallest Bones in the bodyMrs. Jameson
10 Fun FactBabies can get earaches because of milk backing up in the Eustachian tube, which causes bacteria to grow and may cause hearing problems later in life.An earache is caused by too much fluid putting pressure on your eardrum. Earaches are often the result of an infection, allergies or a virus.
11 Inner EarCochlea- a spiral-shaped, fluid-filled inner ear structure; it is lined with cilia (tiny hairs) that move when vibrated and cause a nerve impulse to form.Nerves- these carry electro-chemical signals from the inner ear (the cochlea) to the brain.Semicircular Canals- Fluid filled tubes attached to the cochlea that help us maintain our sense of balance.
12 Can you label the ear? Semicircular Canals Stirrup Nerves Anvil Hammer PinnaCochleaEardrumEustachian TubeOuter Ear Canal
13 Day or Night, Ears Keep You Upright When you move your head, the liquid in the semicircular canals moves, too.The liquid moves the tiny hairs, which send a nerve message to your brain about the position of your head.In less than a second, your brain sends messages to the right muscles so that you keep your balance.
14 Dizzy yet?Sometimes the liquid in your semicircular canals keeps moving after you've stopped moving.spin in circles or go on the Tilt-A-Whirl at the amusement park.Your brain is getting two different messages and is confused about the position of your head.
15 Balance DisordersA condition that makes you feel unsteady or dizzy, as if you are moving, spinning, or floating, even though you are standing still or lying down.Can be caused by viral or bacterial infections in the ear, a head injury, or blood circulation problem. Many people experience problems with their sense of balance as they get older.
16 There are three kinds of hearing loss: Sensorineural Conductive Mixed hearing loss
17 Sensorineural Hearing Loss Also known as nerve deafnessthe inner ear or actual hearing nerve itself is damagedAbout 90% of all people with hearing impairments suffer from sensorineural hearing lossMost common
18 Sensorineural Hearing Loss Usually permanentnot medically or surgically treatableIn most cases, the cillia or the nerves from the inner ear to the brain are irreparably damaged.wearing hearing aids may be of significant benefit
19 Conductive Hearing Loss outer and/or middle part of the ear fail to work properlySounds become "blocked" and are not carried all the way to the inner ear (where hearing is still normal)Not permanent; temporary hearing loss
20 Mixed Hearing LossA combination of a conductive and sensorineural hearing lossBoth the middle and inner ear are involved
21 Causes of Sensorineural Hearing Loss the natural aging processexposure to loud noisesinfection or other diseasea genetic disorderTinnitus, or ringing in the ears, is usually associated with sensorineural hearing loss
22 Causes of Conductive Hearing Loss a buildup of fluid in the middle earwax in the ear canalpuncturing of the eardrumproblems or injury to the bones or membrane — which carry sound from the external ear through the middle ear to the inner ear.
23 Causes of a Mixed Hearing Loss This hearing disorder can also occur when a person first just has a permanent sensorineural hearing loss and then also develops a conductive hearing loss.For example, a person who already has a sensorineural loss gets a middle ear infection, and the two types of loss combine to create a greater hearing loss.Some other instances of mixed hearing loss are the result of the outer and inner ear being malformed, which causes both types of hearing loss
24 TreatmentConductive hearing loss can be easier to remedy than sensorineural or mixed hearing loss.It is usually treatable with either medical or surgical interventionIn cases where medical/surgical intervention is not an option, a hearing aid can be very helpful.
25 Treatment Sensorineural hearing loss is usually permanent no medically or surgically treatable. In most cases, the nerves from the inner ear to the brain are irreparably damaged.However, most people with this hearing loss find wearing hearing aids to be of significant benefit
26 Treatment for Mixed Hearing Loss Mrs. Jameson ASLTreatment for Mixed Hearing LossWith mixed hearing loss, the conductive part may be treated, but the sensorineural part is usually permanent.How Loud is Too Loud?Mrs. Jameson
27 Hearing Instruments Small, comfortable, and almost invisible Mrs. Jameson ASLHearing InstrumentsSmall, comfortable, and almost invisibleConsists of a microphone, an amplifier or processor and a speaker, which transmits the enhanced sound waves into your ear.A tiny battery supplies the necessary powerHow Loud is Too Loud?Mrs. Jameson
28 Mrs. Jameson ASLHearing InstrumentsThe ear remains open and receptive to those sounds which can still be heard naturally.They amplify speech, tones and sounds exactly when they need to.In complex hearing situations they pick out the signals you really want to hear.How Loud is Too Loud?Mrs. Jameson
29 Mrs. Jameson ASLHearing InstrumentsThat they focus the hearing on the desired source, and block out unwanted background noise. You can now hear the person you are speaking with, despite loud music and background conversation.In cases of moderate hearing loss, modern hearing aids can restore up to 100% of hearing capability.How Loud is Too Loud?Mrs. Jameson
30 Types of Hearing Instruments Mrs. Jameson ASLTypes of Hearing InstrumentsIn-the-ear models (ITE or ITC/CIC models)Behind-the-ear models (CRT and BTE models)How Loud is Too Loud?Mrs. Jameson
31 Levels of Hearing Loss Bilateral- both ears are impaired Mrs. Jameson ASLLevels of Hearing LossBilateral- both ears are impairedUnilateral- one ear is impaired“Do you need both ears?” ActivityMrs. Jameson
32 Bilateral Hearing Loss MildModerateSevereProfound
33 Mild Hearing LossA mild hearing loss may cause you to miss 25-40% of the speech signal.Usually this results in problems with clarity since the brain is receiving some sounds but not all of the information.Symptoms of mild hearing loss include problems understanding someone farther away than a normal distance for conversation, or even up close if the background environment is noisy.Weak voices are also difficult to understand for people with mild hearing losses.
34 Moderate Hearing LossA moderate hearing loss may cause you to miss 50-75% of the speech signal.This means you would not have problems hearing at short distances and understanding people face-to-face, but you would have problems if distance or visual cues changed.Symptoms of moderate hearing loss include problems hearing normal conversations and problems hearing consonants in words
35 Severe Hearing LossPeople with severe hearing loss have difficulty hearing in all situations.Speech may be heard only if the speaker is talking loudly or at close range.A severe hearing loss may sometimes cause you to miss up to 100% of the speech signal.Symptoms of severe hearing loss include inability to have conversations except under the most ideal circumstances (i.e., face-to-face, in quiet, and accompanied with speechreading).
36 Profound Hearing LossProfound hearing loss is the most extreme hearing loss.A profound hearing loss means that you may not hear loud speech or any speech at all.You are forced to rely on visual cues instead of hearing as your main method of communication. This may include sign-language and/or speechreading (also commonly referred to as "lipreading")
37 Mrs. Jameson ASLFun FactChildren have more sensitive ears than adults. They can recognize a wider variety of noises.Dolphins have the best sense of hearing among animals. They are able to hear 14 times better than humans.Animals hear more sounds than humans.Mrs. Jameson
38 How Hearing Loss is Measured Mrs. Jameson ASLHow Hearing Loss is MeasuredDecibels (dB)- the intensity (volume or loudness) of a soundA whisper is about 20 dBloud music (some concerts) is around 80 to 120 dBand a jet engine is about 140 to 180 dBUsually, sounds greater than 85 dB can cause hearing loss in a few hours; louder sounds can cause immediate pain, and hearing loss can develop in a very short timeGun shot – instant; we can hear 0 dBMrs. Jameson
39 How Hearing Loss is Measured Hertz- a range of frequenciesThe tone of sound is measured in cycles per second (cps) or Hertz.Low bass tones range around 50 to 60 HzShrill, high - pitched tones range around 10,000 Hz or higherThe normal range of human hearing is about 20 Hz to 20,000 HzSome people can hear within a slightly higher rangeAnimals can hear up to about 50,000 Hz.
40 Identifying Hearing Loss Ranges have been established to help people identify how much difficulty they should expect from their hearing loss. The typical ranges for an adult are:-10dB to 25dB = Normal range26dB to 40 dB = Mild hearing loss41 dB to 55 dB = Moderate hearing loss56 dB to 70 dB = Moderately Severe hearing loss71 dB to 90 dB = Severe hearing lossover 90 dB = Profound hearing loss
41 Audiogram Hearing loss is plotted on an audiogram Right ear is represented by a red circleLeft ear is represented by a blue X
42 Audiogram 10dB to 25dB = Normal hearing 26dB to 40 dB = Mild hearing loss41 dB to 55 dB =Moderate hearing loss56 dB to 70 dB =Moderately-Severe loss71 dB to 90 dB =Severe hearing lossover 90 dB =Profound hearing loss
53 Ear ConditionsEarache: Pain in the ear can have many causes. Some of these are serious, some are not serious.Otitis media (middle ear inflammation): Inflammation or infection of the middle ear (behind the eardrum). Usually, this is caused by an infection.Swimmer’s ear (Otitis externa): Inflammation or infection of the outer ear (pinna and ear canal). Sudden cases are usually infections; chronic otitis is often a skin condition (dermatitis).
54 Ear ConditionsMeniere’s disease: A condition in which the inner ear on one side malfunctions. Vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and pain are common symptoms.Tinnitus: Ringing in one or both ears. Usually this is due to damage from noise exposure, or from aging.Cerumen (ear wax) impaction: Ear wax may block the ear canal and adhere to the eardrum. The eardrum’s reduced vibrations impair hearing.
55 Ear ConditionsRuptured eardrum: Very loud noises, sudden changes in air pressure, or foreign objects can tear the eardrum. The small hole usually heals within a few weeks.Acoustic neuroma: A noncancerous tumor that grows on the nerve traveling from the ear to the brain. Hearing loss, vertigo, and tinnitus can be symptoms.Mastoiditis: Infection of the mastoid bone, just behind the ear. Mastoiditis was once a common complication of untreated ear infections.
56 Ear ConditionsBenign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV): A disruption of function in the inner ear, causing episodes of vertigo. Although not medically serious, its symptoms can be distressing.Cholesteatoma: This is a benign condition. It is the buildup of fibrous tissue within the middle ear and surrounding bones. Often there is a foul smelling discharge associated with hearing loss.