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Principal Parts of Verbs
The four basic forms of a verb are called the principal parts of the verb.
The four principal parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle.
Examples Base Form Past Past Participle start (is) start-ed wearPresent Part-iciple Past Past Participle start (is) starting start-ed (have) started wear (is) wear-ing wore (have) worn
Note The words is and have are included in the chart on the previous slide because present participle and past participle verb forms require helping verbs (forms of be and have) to form tenses.
As you can see from their names, the principal parts of a verb are used to express time.
Present Time She wears a blue uniform.Ray has been wearing his baseball cap.
Past Time Yesterday, we wore sweaters.I had worn braces for three months.
Future Time Jessica will wear her new dress at the party.By next spring, Joey will have worn holes in those shoes.
A verb that forms its past and past participle by adding –d or –ed is called a regular verb. A verb that forms its past and past participle differently is called an irregular verb.
Regular Verbs Base Form Present Participle Past Past Participle Wash(is) washing washed (have) washed Hop (is) hopping Hopped (have) hopped Use (is) using used (have) used
Note Most regular verbs that end in –e drop the –e before adding –ing. Some regular verbs double the final consonant before adding –ing or –ed.
Examples Cause Causing Caused Drop Dropping Dropped
One common error in forming the past or past participle of a regular verb is to leave off the –d or –ed ending.
Example NONSTANDARD: Josh was suppose to meet us here.STANDARD: Josh was supposed to meet us here.
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