2First, a few poetry terms… A stanza is like a paragraph of a poem.A 2-line stanza is called: A CoupletA 3-line stanza is called: A TercetA 4-line stanza is called: A QuatrainA 5-line stanza is called: A Cinquain* Alliteration – the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words. * This makes you slow down & focus on the words.Example – “of cloudless climbs and starry skies”
3Underline the words that show alliteration “Come live with me and be my love,/And we will all the pleasures prove”(Marlowe 1-2).“Time drives the flocks from field to fold/When rivers rage and rocks grow cold,”(Raleigh 5-6).
4The answers… “Come live with me and be my love,/ And we will all the pleasures prove”(Marlowe 1-2).“Time drives the flocks from field to fold/When rivers rage and rocks grow cold,”(Raleigh 5-6).
5Why not…? “Come live with me and be my love,/ And we will all the pleasures prove”(Marlowe 1-2).“Time drives the flocks from field to fold/When rivers rage and rocks grow cold,”(Raleigh 5-6).
6Definition of a SonnetA 14-line lyric poem with a complicated rhyme scheme and a defined structure.Comes from the Italian word for “little song”
7VoltaThe volta (or “the turn”) in a sonnet is important. The volta is the point where the poet takes a “turn” or changes what he’s talking about (often when the rhyme group changes or with words like “But” “Yet” etc.)Ex: ABBAABBA (volta) CDCDCDNot every sonnet has a volta.
8Italian SonnetAlso called the Petrarchan Sonnet in honor of Francesco Petrarch, the Italian poet who perfected itHe thought it was the perfect style to convey emotions, esp. loveHe wrote 365 sonnets (*one per day) to a beautiful lady named Laura.
9Form & Rhyme Scheme Two-part structure: octave (first eight lines) ABBAABBA (rhyme scheme)sestet (last six lines)CDCDCD or CDECDE(*occasionally CDDCDD)
10Petrarchan cont.Octave: usually sets up/explains the speaker’s situationSestet: resolves, draws conclusions about or expresses a reaction to that situationThe volta usually occurs between the octave & sestetABBAABBA volta CDCDCD
11Sonnet 1 by Petrarch Rhyme scheme: ABBAABBACDECDE Here's Sonnet 1 in the original: Voi ch'ascoltate in rime sparse il suono Di quei sospiri ond'io nudriva 'l core In sul mio primo giovenile errore, Quand'era in parte altr'uom da quel ch' i' sono, Del vario stile in ch'io piango e ragiono Fra le vane speranze e 'l van dolore, Ove sia chi per prova intenda amore, Spero trovar pieta, non che perdono. Ma ben veggio or si come al popol tutto Favola fui gran tempo, onde sovente Di me medesmo meco mi vergogno; E del mio vaneggiar vergogna e 'l frutto, E 'l pentersi, e 'l conoscer chiaramente Che quanto piace al mondo e breve sognoRhyme scheme: ABBAABBACDECDE
12Rhyme scheme gone wrong? No; Petrarchan sonnets we read are TRANSLATIONS from the original Italian.Translators try to create a similar rhyme scheme.
13The English changed it English is considered a “rhyme poor” language. Petrarchan sonnets only used 4-5 rhymes per sonnet.English poets made the rhyme scheme more complex.
14Edmund Spenser’s Sonnets The rhyme scheme overlaps to bring more unity to the poems.Rhyme scheme:ABAB BCBC CDCD EE● The volta/turn tends to occur at line 9 or the rhyming couplet at the end.
15Spenser’s SonnetsLike Shakespeare’s, his consist of 3 quatrains and a rhyming couplet.Amoretti – his collection of sonnets – were published in 1595“intimate little tokens of love”Many written when courting his 2nd wife, Elizabeth Boyle (likely autobiographical in part)
16Shakespeare’s Sonnets William Shakespearewrote 154 sonnets.Topics: love, beauty, politics, & mortality.Some don’t believe he wrote them.The sonnets refer to a fair young man, a dark lady, and a rival poet.
17The Rules 14 lines long Rhyme scheme: ABAB CDCD EFEF GG Ten syllables per lineWritten in iambic pentameterUsually about love (but not always)
18What’s iambic pentameter? Iambic foot = unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable (a foot with 2 syllables)ex. trapeze (tra-PEZE) not TRA-pezePentameter = five feetIambic pentameter = (2 x 5=10)10 syllables per line‘ / ‘ / ‘ / ‘ / ‘ /My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun
19Shakespearean FormThree quatrains (3 sets of 4 lines each) + one rhyming couplet (2 lines that rhyme) = 14 linesThe volta often occurs in the third quatrain (lines 9-12) or in the rhyming couplet (lines 13-14).Shakespearean sonnets include a “resolution” (an answer, ending thought, or summarizing comment) in the rhyming couplet.
20Sonnet 138 When my love swears that she is made of truth A I do believe her, though I know she lies, BThat she might think me some untutor'd youth, AUnlearned in the world's false subtleties. BThus vainly thinking that she thinks me young, CAlthough she knows my days are past the best, DSimply I credit her false speaking tongue: COn both sides thus is simple truth suppress'd. DBut wherefore says she not she is unjust? EAnd wherefore say not I that I am old? FO, love's best habit is in seeming trust, EAnd age in love loves not to have years told: FTherefore I lie with her and she with me, GAnd in our faults by lies we flatter'd be. G
21You have such a nice smile! She is soooo lying!You have such a nice smile!