Presentation on theme: "Lesley Wilson Secretary General, EUA"— Presentation transcript:
1Master & Doctoral Education in Europe: Key Challenges for Quality Assurance Lesley WilsonSecretary General, EUAQuality Assurance in Postgraduate EducationENQA Workshop, Brasov, March 2009
2I. – Starting Point: A Decade of Reforms in Europe The Bologna Process – Improving the quality of European higher education: Bachelor, Master, PhDThe European Research Area – better job opportunities & more rewarding careers for young researchersThe « modernisation » of universities – more autonomy for universities but also growing accountability requirements..The ‘new internationalisation’ of European HE
3II. What the Communiqués say (1) Bologna 1999: system based on 2 main cycles, undergraduate and graduateThe first cycle – minimum of three yearsThe second cycle should lead to the master and/or doctorate degreePrague 2001: programmes should have different orientations & various profiles >academic, individual & labour market needsBerlin 2003: necessary to go beyond the 2 cycles to include the doctoral level as the third cycle
4II. What the Communiqués say (2) Bergen Communiqué (2005): integrating the The Salzburg Principles (EUA, 2005)Synergy EHEA/ERA, Doctoral level to be aligned to QFsEUA invited to prepare a report on the further development of the Principles, to be presented to Ministers in London 2007London Communiqué (2007): Doctoral Programmes in Europe (EUA, 2007)Variety of doctoral programmes but avoid overregulationImprove status, career prospects & funding for early stage researchersEUA to continue to support the sharing of experience
5III. – Where are we now after a decade of reforms? (1) the Master level Master – sandwiched between the Bachelor and the PhD2nd cycle not well understood and not yet up and running everywhereMultiplicity of purposes, 3 main types: taught courses with professional orientation, research intensive masters, variety of courses for returning learnersNot always ‘readible’ everywhere, eg plethora of titles, problems with ISCED classifications, with sectoral qualifications etc.Governance reforms across Europe: more autonomous & accountable universitiesBut is there a danger that although we have common goals the responses at national level are ever more diverse – particularly true in relation to quality and accreditationDemography & the race to attract global talentThe ‘new wave’ of internationalisation:
6III. Where are we now ? (2) Doctoral Education Main link between the EHEA and ERAUniversities have the main responsibility;providing training in & through research is a core taskAlso explains the growing importance of universities in meeting national & European goalsDrivers of change:Global competition & changing labour marketsEU policies (Lisbon, ERA Green Paper, Modernisation Agenda for Universities etc.)Bologna ProcessDifferent purpose, structures, organisation, and funding than the 1st & 2nd cycle
7III. A decade of reforms (3) the ‘new wave’ of European internationalisation Based on the Bologna reforms and the nature of research in 21st centuryStrategic international cooperation enhances the attractiveness of European universitiesMaster, doctorate & post doctorate phase are crucial elements of successful internationalisation – attracting the best students & young researchersMaster programmes are increasing taught in English & targeted at international studentsDoctoral schools & structured doctoral programmes attract larger numbers of international students
8IV. Quality Issues & challenges for Quality Assurance (1) at Master level Making the master readable across 46 Bologna countries – establishing clarifty of types, titles & nomenclatura – towards a shared terminology for different types of mastersFinalising National Qualifications FrameworksEnsuring the development of learning outcomes for different types of programmesRequiring guidelines for developing learning outcomes also as part of collaborative provisionThe master is the most ‘marketised’ level: selection for entry & funding issues require attention to ensure equitable accessEnshrined in the berlin and the London CommuniquésQAAs – very different levels of devleopmentDefintion and accreditation of master programmes a major challenge – this has an impact on the doctoral level550 people attended our annual quality forum last week in Budapest
9IV – Quality & challenges for QA (2) doctoral level Doctoral education is the third cycle of education & the first stage of a researcher’s careerTraditionally the core responsibility of universitiesMajor reforms are underway, major debate on the key elements consituting quality at doctoral level in this new context, e.g.Structured programmes & doctoral/research/graduate schools – different models - to achieve critical mass, enhance interdisciplinarity/Inter-insitutional cooperation etc.Improved arrangements for supervision and assessmentEnsuring transferable skills development - to enhance awareness or research skills acquired & improve employment possibilities inside & outsde academiaMaster programmes are often accredited - but how does this link to the doctoral cycle is still often an open and difficult process – requires also the existence of Qualifications Frameworks defining the learning outcomes of different programmesThe development of doctoral and/or research schools is a key element in the quest for improved quality at doctoral level
10IV – Quality & challenges for QA (2) doctoral level (cont.) Responsibilities, organisation & financing arrangements differ from those of the 1st, 2nd cyclesResults of an EUA survey carried out among govts for the 2007 London Ministerial meeting:Ministries of Education, of Research, Research Councils = varied juridictionsMove away from individual based to strucutured programmes & more doctoral schools/research schools = mix of different organisational formsStatus of doctoral candidates differs from country to countryFunding channels, mechanisms & modes vary enormously - for candidates & programmes
11V - Examples of different situations & different responses across Europe UK: Code of Practice for Postgraduate Research Programmes (QAA) = system wide principles & practices, applied in an institutional contextGermany – only one state (Lower Saxony) has introduced guidelines for the accreditation of doctoral progrmmesFrance: doctoral education can only take place in doctoral schools, accredited by the state, and subject to evaluation by the national agency responsible for both HE & ResearchIn many other countries the state still approves the establishment of progammes leading to a PhD degreeMy own little survey as in our EUA Council on Doctoral Education we have not addressed this specific issueThis sometimes limits innovation & creativity as it is difficult to develop new qualifications
12V. Examples of different situations & different responses across Europe (2) Finland: steered by a few central governmental regulations & delegated to the universities; national mechanisms for evaluating national graduate schools in receipt of special funding;Denmark: new law (2007) specifies that PhD training is organised by PhD schools that are regulated nationally; university decides, no external accreditationNorway: either institutional or programme accreditation, if the former, the latter is not necessary...
13VI - Another element of quality - improving career opportunites for young researchers’ European Charter for Researchers & Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of ResearchersOpen recruitment & portability of grantsSocial security & pension needs of a mobile populationAttractive employment & working conditionsEnhancing the training, skills & experience of researchersUK Concordat to Support the Career Development of ResearchersIrish Universities’ “PhD Graduates’ skills”Question of HR policies & considered crucial in the global competition for talentCode of Conduct – the EC would like to enforce implementation through HR policies in universitiesConcordat: recruitment & selection; recognition & value; support & career development; researchers responsibilities; diversity & equality..
14Conclusions & Questions: Masters The master level is not yet stabilised across Europethe role of NQFslearning outcomes for different types of mastersWhat about the regulated professionsParticular challenges with joint programmes – most are at master levelThe Master/PhD link – career researchers,innovators & entrepreneurs: not just limited to 3rd cycleSometimes ‘graduate schools’ include the master level, sometimes only the doctorate level – articulation between the two is crucial
15Conclusions & questions: doctoral education The 3rd cycle differs radically in purpose, content, structures from the other 2 cyclesStructures are in flux & changing fast – no one model & structured programmes do not exist everywhereWhat should be the role of QA agencies that in many countries do not have responsibility at present?QAA/AERES examples – looking at insitutional arrangements in the context of specific missions?Coordination with other players crucial is crucial