2StructureTraining of young researchers in the documents of Bologna ProcessOrganisation, conditions and regulations of doctoral training (the main focus on mobility, recognition and the use of credits)Excellence as the distinctive trait of doctoral training (the main focus on assessment and supervision)Some questions for further discussion
3Graz Declaration - 2003 (before Berlin Communiqué) Europe of knowledgeResearch as an integral part of higher educationLink between European Higher Education (EHEA) and Research Areas (ERA). Graduates at all levels exposed to a research environment and to research-based training.Doctoral programmes = main link between EHEA and ERAEnhancement of European collaboration and increase of mobility at the doctoral and post-doctoral levels (e.g. Joint Doctoral programmes)
4Berlin Communiqué (2003) Research – integral part of EHE Postgraduate cycleIII cycle3-4 yearsECTS ??Effect of Berlin CommuniquéMinisters asked Higher EducationInstitutions to increase the roleand relevance of research totechnological, social and culturalevolution and to the needs of societyFocus on inclusion of the doctorallevel as the third cycleImportance of researchand research trainingIncrease in mobility on thedoctoral and the postdoctoral levelsLong cycle5-6 yearsECTSII cycle1.5-2 yearsECTSI cycle3-4 yearsECTSe.g. lowmedicineI + II =300 ECTS
5EHEA i ERA – two pillars in the development of „Europe of Knowledge” ResearchIII CycleDoctorEducation of young researchers- doctoral programmes- post-doctoral trainingEuropean Research AreaERA(Research andInnovation Area)
6Salzburg Principles (February 2005) (before Bergen Communiqué) The core component of doctoral training is the advancement of knowledge through original research (doctoral training through research not for research)Embedding in institutional strategies and policiesThe importance of diversityDoctoral candidates as early stage researchersThe crucial role of supervision and assessmentAchieving critical massDuration (3 to 4 years full time as a rule)The promotion of innovative structureIncreasing mobilityEnsuring appropriate funding
7Bergen Communiqué (2005) Importance of research and research training in enhancing the competitiveness and attractiveness on the EHEARECOMMENDATIONSThe increase of the number of doctoral candidatesThe synergy between the HE sector and others research sectorsDoctoral level qualification included into the QFThe needs for structural doctoral programmes and transparent supervision and assessmentPromotion of the interdisciplinary training and the development of transferable skillsParticipants in third cycle programmes considered both as students and as early stage researchers
8London Communiqué (2007) - confirmation of close connection between EHEA and ERA Positive assessment of a wide variety of doctoral programmes linked to QF for EHEA and improving the status, career and funding for early stage researchersInvitation of HEIs to reinforce their efforts to embed doctoral programmes in institutional strategies and policiesInvitation of EUA to continue to support the sharing of experience and good practices among HEIs on the range of innovative doctoral programmes
9Leuven Communiqué (2009) The Bologna Process The European Higher Education Area in the new decadeEducation, research and innovation15. Higher education should be based at all levels on state of the art research and development thus fostering innovation and creativity in society. We recognise the potential of higher education programmes, including those based on applied science, to foster innovation. Consequently, the number of people with research competences should increase. Doctoral programmes should provide high quality disciplinary research and increasingly be complemented by inter-disciplinary and inter-sectoral programmes. Moreover, public authorities and institutions of higher education will make the career development of early stage researchers more attractive.
10Organisation, conditions and regulations on doctoral training Trend towardsDifferent modelsMaster students & doctoral candidates with crosscutting administrativesupport & transferable skills developmentDoctoral candidates only, often organised around a discipline or research thememay involve several institutions
11Organisation, conditions and regulations on doctoral training Forms of organisation in various countriessource: Doctoral Programmes in Europe’s Universities: Achievements and Challenges, EUA 2007
12Organisation, conditions and regulations on doctoral training Diversity of doctorates (research doctorates, taught doctorates, professional doctorates, industrial doctorates, European doctorates etc.)Diversity of doctoral programmes reflects diversity of EHEIs that have autonomy to develop their mission and prioritiesConsensus: original research has to remain the main component of all doctoratesNo consensus on new doctorates in Europe & further debate is neededsource: Lesley Wilson, Bologna Seminar Doctoral Education in the European Higher Education Area from a University Perspective, EUA, Helsinki, 30/09/2008
13Organisation, conditions and regulations on doctoral training Status of doctoral candidate = Early Stage Researchersource: Doctoral Programmes in Europe’s Universities: Achievements and Challenges, EUA 2007Whatever the status, it is crucial that doctoral candidate is given allcommensurate rights (healthcare, pension, social security)
14Organisation, conditions and regulations on doctoral training incuiry MCFA, Eurodoc & Pi-Net (2003); 2790 answersSocialsecuritysource: M. Lola, Marie Curie Fellowship Association, EUA Conf., Salzburg 2005
15Organisation, conditions and regulations on doctoral training Internationalisation and mobility – recommendations (1)The international dimension of doctorate programmes and doctoral schools has to be taken into account in evaluation of institutionsPromotion of international cooperation & mobility at doctoral level – becomes an integral part of institutional strategies joint doctoral programmes, co-tutelles, European doctorates, etc more transsectoral mobility (collaboration with industry) international cooperation in the field of doctoral studies (internationalstaff, international summer schools & conferences, etc.)Challenge: ensuring that the added value of different forms of mobility is recognised for the career development of ESRssources: Bologna Seminars - EUA: Nice – April 2006, Helsinki - September 2008
16Organisation, conditions and regulations on doctoral training Internationalisation and mobility – recommendations (2)Public authorities and HE institutions should stimulate and facilitate international mobility of doctoral candidates, post docs and senior researchers / academicsFunding possibilities for international doctoral programmes (and information about) should be improvedMore organisational institutional support is needed (also for families)Removal of obstacles: recognition of degrees; legal problems (visa, work permit, social security, transferable pension claim, teaching and administrative obligations at home institutions)Reinforce the position of researcher’s mobility centres providing information about working / funding possibilities on European and national levelssources: Bologna Seminars - EUA: Nice – April 2006, Helsinki - September 2008
17Organisation, conditions and regulations on doctoral training Internationalisation and mobility – some common rulesThe duration of doctoral studies – convergence in similar study field would be welcome; diversities between fields should be acknowledged and toleratedInternational cooperation by restricting the recognition of degrees by national agencies (diversity in degree awarded: in wide topics or in subtopics highly specialised)Standards should be maintained and benchmarked by having national and international examiners who can judge the substantive original contributionTo develop an international perspective doctoral candidate should spend periods at another research university, often abroad
18Organisation, conditions and regulations on doctoral training Tools of Bologna Process (QF, LO, ECTS)Consensus – Qualification Framework (QF), Learning Outcomes (LO)No consensus on ECTS – further debate is neededExamples of opinions: LERU, May 2007 – Allocations of credits to doctoral traininghas no useful purpose but rather adds unnecessarybureaucracy Tuning, Autumn 2008 (J. Gonzalez & R. Wagenaar) – discusses usefulness of ECTS as a planning instrument for doctoral studies
19Excellence as the distinctive trait of doctoral training LERU (League of European Research Universities) – recommendations (May 2007)Excellence must be encouraged and supported and to be a part of the regular research assessment of departments and faculties rather than be monitored by an excessively regulated bureaucratic systemCareful selection of the best candidates and their evaluation are needed both at entrance and throughout the training periodDoctoral training must remain clearly distinct from the first and second cycles of HEWhile the main component is independent research, there should be a structured programme of activity (e.g. seminars, courses)
20Excellence as the distinctive trait of doctoral training SUPERVISION AND ASSESSMENTStarting point - Salzburg Recommendation (2005)V. The crucial role of supervision and assessment: In respect of individual doctoral candidates , arrangements for supervision and assessment should be based on transparent contractual framework of shared responsibilities between doctoral candidates, supervisors and the institution (and where appropriate including other partners).It is a good practice in many HEIs but....discussion is needed on formal arrangementsDoctoral candidateSupervisorInstitutionconflictFormal arrangementsdetermine rights and dutiesof each partyIndividualcontractsRegulations at the levelof state; institution ?What is better ?
21Excellence as the distinctive trait of doctoral training SUPERVISIONWhat is the best model?Does it depend on- discipline?- type of degree (research/professional)?- mode of studying (full time/part time)?To what extent external expertsshould be involved?
22Excellence as the distinctive trait of doctoral training source: A. Krasniewski, EUA Conf. on Doctoral Programmes in Europe, Nice, Dec. 2006SUPERVISIONrole andresponsibilitiesof a supervisorMONITORING&ASSESSMENTSupervision and assesmentconflictresolutionformalarrangementsmodelsof supervisionselection ofa supervisortraining ofsupervisorsqualificationrequirementsfor a supervisor
23Excellence as the distinctive trait of doctoral training source: A. Krasniewski, EUA Conf. on Doctoral Programmes in Europe, Nice, Dec. 2006E.g.Expertise in the fieldof researchCurrent involvement in(international)research projectsE.g.Actively guide through theresearchProvide critical review ofresearch resultsProvide for equipment andresourcesWho should define requirements?Special requirements for supervisorsof professional doctorates?How to verify whether or not therequirements are satisfied?Formal procedure to register as a(principal) supervisor?Should a minimum number ofcontact hours be guaranteed?How much supervision is needed?Is supervisor responsible forfinancial support?Are there specific duties ofsupervisors of professional doctorate?
24Excellence as the distinctive trait of doctoral training Training of supervisorsAssessment of supervisorsShould the training be mandatory?Only for new supervisors or also for experienced?What about team supervisors?What should be the scope and form of training?How to overcome the resistance of professors?How and by whom should supervisors be assessed?Should doctoral candidates be involved?What should be a consequence of a negative assessment?
25Excellence as the distinctive trait of doctoral training Monitoring and assessment of candidatesSCOPEAdmission (formal requirements and objective procedures based on academic excellence and research potential)Introduction into the scientific community (writing papers for submission to peer-reviewed journals, presentation of results at conferences, training abroad…)Transferable skills (general research methods, academic writing and communication, research grant proposal writing, teacher training…)Research progressAssessment of thesis and final evaluation (objective and transparent, made by university expert committee without the supervisor as a member)METHODSCritical review of periodical progress reports (submitted by the candidate)Periodical review meetings„milestone” reviews (thesis proposal,..)Examinations (comprehensive,…)Seminars (presentations, discussions..)Progress reports by supervisor(s)How often should periodical reviewstake place?Who should be involved (besidesthe supervisor)?What examinations should thecandidate take?
26Some questions for further discussion How to increase and improve mobility of doctoral candidates and quality of mobility?Should all the tools (QF, LO, ECTS) used in the organisation of the first and second cycles programmes be applied in the third cycle?How to assure the excellence of doctoral training (assessment – supervision)?