Presentation on theme: "Needs Analysis Instructor: Dr. Mavis Shang"— Presentation transcript:
1 Needs Analysis Instructor: Dr. Mavis Shang Presenter: Sophia Yar-ling Tsai27 March 2008I-Shou University, Taiwan
2 Introduction What are ‘Needs’? Wants, desires, demands, expectation, motivations,lacks, constraints, and requirements (Brindley 1984)What is ‘Needs Analysis’?Procedures for collecting information about learners’needs.When did ‘Needs Analysis’ emerge?In the 1960sESP movement
3 The purpose of needs analysis 1. To find out what language skills a learner needs2. To help determine if an existing course adequately addresses the needs of potential students3. To determine which students are most in need of training in particular language skills
4 The purpose of needs analysis 4. To identify a change of direction that people in a reference group feel is important5. To identify a gap between what students are able to do and what they need to be able to do6. To collect information about a particular problem learners are experiencing
5 The purpose of needs analysis ‘Needs’ also includes students’ rights‘It’s school’s responsibility to take into account the cultural,political, and personal characteristics of students …. in order to planactivities and objectives that are realistic and purposeful.’ (Linse, 1993)Needs also includes perceived and present needs,potential and unrecognized needsNeeds analysis may take place1. prior to2. during3. after a language program
6 Examples of needs analyses conducted prior to a language program Method:Staff questionnaire:* background information about the course the lecturer wasdescribing* overview of problems experienced by ESL students* linguistic demands of the course* suggestions to which language skills should be focuses on* modifications made in teaching or in examinationsStudents questionnaire
7 The users of needs analysis Big-scale needs analysiscurriculum officers in the ministry of educationTeachersLearnersWritersTesting personnelStaff of tertiary institutionsSmall-scale needs analysisTeacherProgram coordinator
8 The target population Language learners or potential language learners Policy makersMinistry of education officialsTeachersAcademicsEmployersVocational training specialistsParentsInfluential individuals and pressure groupsAcademic specialistsCommunity agencies
9 The target population Subcategories of respondents students currently enrolled in a foreign language coursestudents previously enrolled but no longer studying a languagestudents who have never studied a foreign languageAn important issue in determining the target population: SamplingSampling involves asking a portion of potential population instead of the total population
10 Administering the needs analysis Who will administer the needs analysis?Who will collect and analyze the results?* academic or research assistant* colleagues in different department* students who piloted the questionnaire* academic staff of the university* secretarial support
11 Procedures for conducting needs analysis QuestionnairesSelf-ratingsInterviewsMeetingsObservationCollecting learner language samplesTask analysisCase studiesAnalysis of available information
12 Design of Questionnaires The following questions need to be considered:Preliminary questionsThe types of information asked forHow the questions are wordedThe type of items in the questionnaire:open questions, closed questions, checklist, rating scale, ranking, inventory
13 A disadvantage of Questionnaires The information obtained may be fairly superficial or imprecise.The information will often need follow-up to gain a fuller understanding.* Advice: to familiar with the principles ofgood questionnaire design.
14 Self-ratingsSelf-ratings might be included as part of a questionnaire.Disadvantage:It provides only impressionistic information.
15 Interviews Advantage: * Allow for a more in-depth exploration of issue * may be useful at the preliminary stage of designinga questionnaire.Disadvantage:* Take longer to administer* Only feasible for smaller groups
16 Meetings Advantage: * Allows a large amount of information to be collected in a fairly short time.Disadvantage:* Information may be impressionistic and subjective
17 Observation Take into account: * People often do not perform well when they areobserved.* The skill of observer.
18 Collecting learner language samples Language samples may be collected through:Written or oral tasksSimulations or role playsAchievement testsPerformance tests
19 Task analysisAnalysis the tasks the learners will have to carry out in English in a future occupational or educational setting.
20 Case studiesA single student or a selected group of students is followed through a relevant work or educational experience in order to determine the characteristics of that situation.
21 Analysis of available information BooksJournal articlesReports and surveysRecords and files
22 Designing the needs analysis Procedures for bigger-scaleLiterature surveyAnalysis of a wide range of survey questionnairesContact with othersInterviews with teachersIdentification of participating departmentsPresentation of project proposalDevelopment of a pilot student and staff questionnairesReview of the questionnaires
23 Designing the needs analysis Piloting of the questionnairesSelection of staff and student subjectsDeveloping a schedule for collecting dataAdministration of questionnairesFollow-up interviewsTabulation or responsesAnalysis of responsesWriting up of report and recommendations
24 Designing the needs analysis Procedures for smaller-scaleInitial questionnaireFollow-up individual and group interviewsMeetings with studentsMeetings with other teachersOngoing classroom observationTests
25 Making use of the information obtained Making a list consists of information collected from different source and summarized in rankingMore analysis and research‘…..The primary goal of analysis is to bring meaning to the obtained information …’ (Stufflebeam et al. 1985)Take different views into account:* learners’ view* academics’ view* employers’ view* teachers’ view
26 Making use of the information obtained The format for reporting the findings:A full written documentA short summary documentA meetingA group discussionA newsletter