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GETTING TO KNOW EACH OTHERS: China, Japan, South Korea Week 11

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2 GETTING TO KNOW EACH OTHERS: China, Japan, South Korea Week 11
Matakuliah : V0052 Tahun : 2008 GETTING TO KNOW EACH OTHERS: China, Japan, South Korea Week 11

3 Learning Outcomes On completion of this unit, the students should be able to explain the cultural characteristics of Asian countries; China, Japan and South Korea. Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan karakteristik budaya negara-negara Asia; Cina, Jepang dan Korea Selatan. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

4 Subjects China Japan South Korea ASIAN COUNTRIES: HO 0708
Bina Nusantara HO 0708

5 Week 11 CHINA Bina Nusantara HO 0708

6 Week 11 China: Facts and Statistics
Location: Eastern Asia bordering Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km Capital: Beijing Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to sub-arctic in north Population: 1,298,847,624 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic Make-up: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1% Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4% Government: Communist state Bina Nusantara HO 0708

7 Week 11 Society and Culture
People’s Republic of China is a huge nation with approx. 1.2 billion people (about 20% of the world’s total population) Traditional Chinese value system came from its root in Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and other influences Bina Nusantara HO 0708

8 Week 11 Society and Culture
UNCHANGING CHINESE CULTURE An ancient and proud civilisation The name for China is Jong Guo, which means the “Central Country” A common term is still used to refer to foreigners “Yang Guidz” (Foreign devils) Traditional values persist Confucianism, Taoism & Buddhism One important idea of Taoism in Chinese thought is the concept of “Yin Yang” – that all things are locked in cyclical process and as everything reaches its extreme stage, it transforms into its opposite Bina Nusantara HO 0708

9 Week 11 Society and Culture
Confucianism Confucianism is a system of behaviours and ethics that stress the obligations of people towards one another based upon their relationship. The basic tenets are based upon five different relationships: Ruler and subject Husband and wife Parents and children Brothers and sisters Friend and friend Confucianism stresses duty, sincerity, loyalty, honour, filial piety, respect for age and seniority. Through maintaing harmonious relations as individuals, society itself becomes stable. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

10 Week 11 Society and Culture
The importance of the collective The confucian values of harmony, strong interpersonal relationships and group loyalties, hard work, thrift and deference to age are all highly valued (a woman for example, traditionally defers first to her father, then to her husband and finally to her son) The importance of education Another important idea of confucianism is that anyone can rise to the top of society through education The individual and the family Eastern society believe the individual exists in the context of his family Bina Nusantara HO 0708

11 Week 11 Society and Culture
Relationships with “in-groups” In general, from early childhood, Chinese learn relationship habits that stress connection to others, the advantages of co-operation and humility, and the development of strong, enduring bonds with kin and other ‘in-groups’ There is usually no need for written contracts when business is done between Chinese Guan Xi It is glossed in dictionaries as “To concern, to relate, to make connections, to make relationships”. Having guan xi (personal connection) is very important for getting things done (e.g. getting children into a good school) Bina Nusantara HO 0708

12 Week 11 Society and Culture
The extended family Ancestor-worship is common with many families having a shrine and photographs of their ancestors in their homes Language reflects importance of family There are 16 possible terms for “aunt” and “uncle” which tell exactly where they fit into the family Current social life and the family Dutiful respect and care for parents remains a strong cultural value. By tradition, children (especially the oldest son) have been trained to care for their parents as they become older Bina Nusantara HO 0708

13 Week 11 Language & Communication
Verbal Communication Almost all Chinese from Singapore & Hong Kong can speak and read some English There are different varieties of spoken Chinese The national language is Mandarin Chinese communication style was governed by the Confucian concept of “Li” (courtesy, politeness, respect) Despite this, Chinese can appear quite rude and argumentative in certain contexts Bina Nusantara HO 0708

14 Week 11 Language & Communication
Verbal Communication (cont.) People usually avoid doing or saying anything that would damage each other’s prestige and self-respect “Li” and “Face” are closely linked Causes of loss of “face” such as: one’s daughter marrying a poor man, one’s child failing an exam The Chinese habit of laughing or smiling to cover negative emotions The use of given names is usually inappropriate. Among Chinese, elderly friends are commonly called Lao (“Old”) & younger friends are called Xiao (“smaller, younger”) - followed by surname Bina Nusantara HO 0708

15 Week 11 Language & Communication
Language difference can cause problems Chinese might sound rude and demanding when speaking English because of: The lack of “Please”, “Thank You”, “Sorry”, “Could You”, Would You” and The tendency of Chinese to ask personal questions which appear impolite to Westerners Care must be taken when translating promotional material into Chinese The traditional old style of communication is changing E.g. Hong Kong people smile only when they are happy, there are young Chinese everywhere who scorn the old styles Bina Nusantara HO 0708

16 Week 11 Language & Communication
Non-Verbal Communication Chinese do not like to be touched by someone whom they do not know An open hand is usually used for pointing and beckoning is done with the palm down and all fingers waving Chinese, especially Overseas-Chinese, tend to maintain more eye contact than many other Asians Chinese may show their negative response or anger by waving a hand in front of their face in a quick action similar to fanning themselves Exchanging business cards is very important – it is polite to pass them with 2 hands In China, spitting and blowing nose without using a handkerchief do occur Bina Nusantara HO 0708

17 Week 11 Language & Communication
Non-Verbal Communication Chinese do not like to be touched by someone whom they do not know An open hand is usually used for pointing and beckoning is done with the palm down and all fingers waving Chinese, especially Overseas-Chinese, tend to maintain more eye contact than many other Asians Chinese may show their negative response or anger by waving a hand in front of their face in a quick action similar to fanning themselves Exchanging business cards is very important – it is polite to pass them with 2 hands In China, spitting and blowing nose without using a handkerchief do occur Bina Nusantara HO 0708

18 Week 11 Meeting Etiquette
Greetings are formal and the oldest person is always greeted first. Handshakes are the most common form of greeting with foreigners Many Chinese will look towards the ground when greeting someone. Address the person by an honorific title and their surname. If they want to move to a first-name basis, they will advise you which name to use. The Chinese have a terrific sense of humour. They can laugh at themselves most readily if they have a comfortable relationship with the other person. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

19 Week 11 Gift Giving Etiquette
In general, gifts are given at Chinese New Year, weddings, births and more recently (because of marketing), birthdays. The Chinese like food. A nice food basket will make a great gift. Do not give scissors, knives or other cutting utensils  indicate the severing of the relationship. Do not give clocks, handkerchiefs or straw sandals  associated with funerals and death. Do not give flowers  associated with funerals. Do not wrap gifts in white, blue or black paper. Four is an unlucky number so do not give four of anything. Eight is the luckiest number, so giving eight of something brings luck to the recipient. Always present gifts with two hands. Gifts are not opened when received. Gifts may be refused three times before they are accepted. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

20 Remove your shoes before entering the house.
Week 11 Dining Etiquette The Chinese prefer to entertain in public places rather than in their homes, especially when entertaining foreigners. If you are invited to their house, consider it a great honour. If you must turn down such an honour, it is considered polite to explain the conflict in your schedule so that your actions are not taken as a slight. Arrive on time. Remove your shoes before entering the house. Bring a small gift to the hostess. Eat well to demonstrate that you are enjoying the food! Learn to use chopsticks. Wait to be told where to sit. The guest of honour will be given a seat facing the door. .  Bina Nusantara HO 0708

21 The host begins eating first.
Week 11 Dining Etiquette The host begins eating first. You should try everything that is offered to you. Never eat the last piece from the serving tray. Be observant to other peoples' needs. Chopsticks should be returned to the chopstick rest after every few bites and when you drink or stop to speak. The host offers the first toast. Do not put bones in your bowl. Place them on the table or in a special bowl for that purpose. Hold the rice bowl close to your mouth while eating. Do not be offended if a Chinese person makes slurping sounds; it merely indicates that they are enjoying their food. There are no strict rules about finishing all the food in your bowl. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

22 Week 11 Business Meeting Etiquette
Appointments are necessary and, if possible, should be made between one-to-two months in advance, preferably in writing. If you do not have a contact within the company, use an intermediary to arrange a formal introduction. Once the introduction has been made, you should provide the company with information about your company and what you want to accomplish at the meeting. You should arrive at meetings on time or slightly early. Arriving late is an insult and could negatively affect your relationship. Pay great attention to the agenda as each Chinese participant has his or her own agenda that they will attempt to introduce. Send an agenda before the meeting so your Chinese colleagues have the chance to meet with any technical experts prior to the meeting. Discuss the agenda with your translator/intermediary prior to submission. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

23 Week 11 Business Meeting Etiquette
Each participant will take an opportunity to dominate the floor for lengthy periods without appearing to say very much of anything that actually contributes to the meeting. Be patient and listen. There could be subtle messages being transmitted that would assist you in allaying fears of on-going association. Meetings require patience. Mobile phones ring frequently and conversations tend to be boisterous. Never ask the Chinese to turn off their mobile phones as this causes you both to lose face. Guests are generally escorted to their seats, which are in descending order of rank. Senior people generally sit opposite senior people from the other side. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

24 Week 11 Business Meeting Etiquette
It is imperative that you bring your own interpreter, especially if you plan to discuss legal or technical concepts as you can brief the interpreter prior to the meeting. Written material should be available in both English and Chinese, using simplified characters. Be very careful about what is written. Make absolutely certain that written translations are accurate and cannot be misinterpreted. Visual aids are useful in large meetings and should only be done with black type on white background. Colours have special meanings and if you are not careful, your colour choice could work against you. Presentations should be detailed and factual and focus on long-term benefits. Be prepared for the presentation to be a challenge. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

25 Week 11 Business Meeting Etiquette
Business cards are exchanged after the initial introduction. Have one side of your business card translated into Chinese using simplified Chinese characters that are printed in gold ink since gold is an auspicious colour. Your business card should include your title. If your company is the oldest or largest in your country, that fact should be on your card as well. Hold the card in both hands when offering it, Chinese side facing the recipient. Examine a business card before putting it on the table next to you or in a business card case. Never write on someone's car. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

26 Week 11 Business Negotiation
Only senior members of the negotiating team will speak. Appoint the most senior person in your group as your spokesman for the introductory functions. Business negotiations occur at a slow pace. Decisions may take a long time, as they require careful review and consideration. Be prepared for the agenda to become a jumping off point for other discussions. Chinese are non-confrontational. They will not overtly say 'no', they will say 'they will think about it' or 'they will see'. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

27 Week 11 Business Negotiation
Chinese negotiations are process oriented. They want to determine if relationships can develop to a stage where both parties are comfortable doing business with the other. Under no circumstances should you lose your temper or you will lose face and irrevocably damage your relationship. Do not use high-pressure tactics. You might find yourself out-manoeuvred. Business is hierarchical. Decisions are unlikely to be made during the meetings you attend. The Chinese are shrewd negotiators. Your starting price should leave room for negotiation. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

28 Week 11 JAPAN Bina Nusantara HO 0708

29 Week 11 Japan: Facts and Statistics
Location: Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula. Capital: Tokyo Population: 127,333,002 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic Make-up: Japanese 99%, others 1% (Korean 511,262, Chinese 244,241, Brazilian 182,232, Filipino 89,851, other 237,914) Religions: observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including Christian 0.7% Official Language: Japanese Bina Nusantara HO 0708

30 Japan is an industrialised urban society
Week 11 Cultural Value Japan is a constitutional monarchy in Eastern Asia – called Nihon or Nippon (Origin of the Sun) Japan is an industrialised urban society Most Japanese prefer to travel in group An homogeneous society A society of rapid change, fads and fashion A “collectivist” culture An hierarchical society Education is valued Bina Nusantara HO 0708

31 Week 11 Society and Culture
The Japanese and 'Face' Saving face is crucial in Japanese society. The Japanese believe that turning down someone's request causes embarrassment and loss of face to the other person. If the request cannot be agreed to, they will say, 'it's inconvenient' or 'it's under consideration'. Face is a mark of personal dignity and means having high status with one's peers. The Japanese will try never to do anything to cause loss of face. Therefore, they do not openly criticize, insult, or put anyone on-the-spot. Face can be lost, taken away, or earned through praise and thanks. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

32 Week 11 Society and Culture
Harmony Harmony is the key value in Japanese society. Harmony is the guiding philosophy for the Japanese in family and business settings and in society as a whole. Japanese children are taught to act harmoniously and cooperatively with others from the time they go to pre-school. The Japanese educational system emphasizes the interdependence of all people, and Japanese children are not raised to be independent but rather to work together. This need for harmonious relationships between people is reflected in much Japanese behaviour. They place great emphasis on politeness, personal responsibility and working together for the universal, rather than the individual, good. They present facts that might be disagreeable in a gentle and indirect fashion. They see working in harmony as the crucial ingredient for working productively. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

33 Week 11 Society and Culture
Japanese Hierarchy The Japanese are very conscious of age and status. Everyone has a distinct place in the hierarchy, be it the family unit, the extended family, a social or a business situation. At school children learn to address other students as senior to them ('senpai') or junior to them ('kohai'). The oldest person in a group is always revered and honoured. In a social situation, they will be served first and their drinks will be poured for them. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

34 Week 11 Language & Communication
Verbal Communication Language differences can present problems It is best to avoid negative questions Names & titles Formal: use “Mr, Sir, Madam or (name) San” Indirectness and silences are valued Harmony is valued A formal hierarchical system is accepted Alcohol and greater informality Conversational response words Gift-giving, compliments and apologies are important “In-group” communication may be more informal Bina Nusantara HO 0708

35 Week 11 Language & Communication
NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Personal space is valued A non-touching culture, trained to avoid much direct eye-contact Prefer more personal space – stand about an arm’s length from the person to whom they are speaking Bowing and gestures A person from lower status must bow lower Avoid pointing and beckoning with one finger – rude Some hints on polite behavior They may smile to hide negative feelings such as sadness, embarrassment and anger It is polite to pass things with two hands Juniors do not cross their legs in front of seniors, women never sit cross-legged Following behaviors are considered rude: blowing one’s nose in front of others and using a handkerchief, showing the open mouth when yawning or laughing, public displays of affection, combing one’s hair in public, and eating in the street. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

36 Week 11 Dining, Service and Accommodation Preferences
Dining out is popular Restaurants in Japan: Japanese, Chinese, Western Reservations are not generally necessary Japanese cuisine is mainly restricted to rice, vegetables, fish and fruits; food portion are generally small, beautifully presented & each flavour is kept separate  “Sappari” (Neat, clean, honest and light) Beer is the most popular alcoholic drink in Japan, followed by whisky, sake and wine Buffet-meals are popular because they can see what they are getting Japanese do not mix rice with other food. It is used as a palate-cleanser between bites from other dishes Bina Nusantara HO 0708

37 Week 11 Dining, Service and Accommodation Preferences
Desserts are not an important part of Japanese cuisine Japanese are accustomed to having soy sauce, toothpicks, iced water and hot hand-towels provided with meals The customer is King Proper forms of behavior are valued Tipping is not a widespread practice in Japan Care should be taken when seating groups: more important people, or older people, should be seated first, and should be allowed to choose their seats Honeymooners should be asked whether they wish to sit alone or with a group Fast service is important It is the custom to lift the glass with both hands as someone refills it. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

38 Week 11 Dining, Service and Accommodation Preferences
Fast check-in and check-out are essential Choices of rooms can be important Attitudes to smoking may differ Cleanliness and hygiene are important Twin beds are generally preferred to double or divan types of beds Japanese are usually very concerned about security, and safes and door chains should therefore be installed Japanese voltage is 100 volts Time is referred to by the 24-hour clock (as 1800 hours) Clean, good-tasting water in the room is an important requirement In Japan, the ground floor is called the first floor White flowers should be avoided in rooms because they are associated with funerals in Japan Bina Nusantara HO 0708

39 Week 11 Dining Etiquette & Table Manner
On the rare occasion you are invited to a Japanese house: Remove your shoes before entering and put on the slippers left at the doorway. Leave your shoes pointing away from the doorway you are about to walk through. Arrive on time or no more than 5 minutes late if invited for dinner. If invited to a large social gathering, arriving a little bit later than the invitation is acceptable, although punctuality is always appreciated. Unless you have been told the event is casual, dress as if you were going into the office. If you must go to the toilet, put on the toilet slippers and remove them when you are finished. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

40 Week 11 Dining Etiquette & Table Manner
Wait to be told where to sit. There is a protocol to be followed. The honoured guest or the eldest person will be seated in the centre of the table the furthest from the door. The honoured guest or the eldest is the first person to begin eating. Never point your chopsticks. It will yield tremendous dividends if you learn to use chopsticks. Do not pierce your food with chopsticks. Chopsticks should be returned to the chopstick rest after every few bites and when you drink or stop to speak. Do not cross your chopsticks when putting them on the chopstick rest. Place bones on the side of your plate. Try a little bit of everything. It is acceptable to ask what something is and even to make a face if you do not like the taste. . Bina Nusantara HO 0708

41 Week 11 Dining Etiquette & Table Manner
Don't be surprised if your Japanese colleagues slurp their noodles and soup. Mixing other food with rice is usually not done. You eat a bit of one and then a bit of the other, but they should never be mixed together as you do in many Western countries. If you do not want anything more to drink, do not finish what is in your glass. An empty glass is an invitation for someone to serve you more. When you have finished eating, place your chopsticks on the chopstick rest or on the table. Do not place your chopsticks across the top of your bowl. If you leave a small amount of rice in your bowl, you will be given more. To signify that you do not want more rice, finish every grain in your bowl. It is acceptable to leave a small amount of food on your plate when you have finished eating. Conversation at the table is generally subdued. The Japanese like to savour their food. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

42 Week 11 Meeting Etiquette
Greetings in Japan are very formal and ritualized. It is important to show the correct amount of respect and deference to someone based upon their status relative to your own. If at all possible, wait to be introduced. It can be seen as impolite to introduce yourself, even in a large gathering. While foreigners are expected to shake hands, the traditional form of greeting is the bow. How far you bow depends upon your relationship to the other person as well as the situation. The deeper you bow, the more respect you show. A foreign visitor ('gaijin') may bow the head slightly, since no one expects foreigners to generally understand the subtle nuances of bowing.  Bina Nusantara HO 0708

43 Week 11 Gift Giving Etiquette
Gift-giving is highly ritualistic and meaningful. If you buy the gift in Japan, have it wrapped. The ceremony of presenting the gift and the way it is wrapped is as important--sometimes more important--than the gift itself. Gifts are given for many occasions. The gift need not be expensive, but take great care to ask someone who understands the culture to help you decide what type of gift to give.  Good quality chocolates or small cakes are good ideas. Do not give lilies, camellias, lotus blossoms or white flowers as they are associated with funerals. Do not give potted plants as they encourage sickness, although a bonsai tree is always acceptable. Give items in odd numbers, but not 9. Pastel colours are the best choices for wrapping paper. Gifts are not opened when received. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

44 Week 11 Business Meeting Etiquette
Appointments are required and, whenever possible, should be made several weeks in advance. It is best to telephone for an appointment rather than send a letter, fax or .  Punctuality is important. Arrive on time for meetings. Since this is a group society, even if you think you will be meeting one person, be prepared for a group meeting. The most senior Japanese person will be seated furthest from the door, with the rest of the people in descending rank until the most junior person is seated closest to the door. It may take several meetings for your Japanese counterparts to become comfortable with you and be able to conduct business with you. . Bina Nusantara HO 0708

45 Week 11 Business Meeting Etiquette
This initial getting to know you time is crucial to laying the foundation for a successful relationship. You may be awarded a small amount of business as a trial to see if you meet your commitments. If you respond quickly and with excellent service, you prove your ability and trustworthiness. Never refuse a request, no matter how difficult or non- profitable it may appear. The Japanese are looking for a long-term relationship. Always provide a package of literature about your company including articles and client testimonials. Always give a small gift, as a token of your esteem, and present it to the most senior person at the end of the meeting. Your Japanese contact can advise you on where to find something appropriate. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

46 Week 11 Business Negotiation
The Japanese are non-confrontational. They have a difficult time saying 'no', so you must observe their non-verbal communication. It is best to phrase questions so that they can answer yes. For example, do you disagree with this? Group decision-making and consensus are important. Written contracts are required. The Japanese often remain silent for long periods of time. Be patient and try to work out if your Japanese colleagues have understood what was said. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

47 Week 11 Business Negotiation
Japanese prefer broad agreements and mutual understanding so that when problems arise they can be handled flexibly. Using a Japanese lawyer is seen as a gesture of goodwill. Note that Japanese lawyers are much more functionary. Never lose your temper or raise your voice during negotiations. Some Japanese close their eyes when they want to listen intently. The Japanese seldom grant concession. They expect both parties to come to the table with their best offer. The Japanese do not see contracts as final agreements so they can be renegotiated. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

48 Business cards are exchanged constantly and with great ceremony.
Week 11 Business Card Business cards are exchanged constantly and with great ceremony. Invest in quality cards and keep your business cards in pristine condition. It is wise to have one side of your business card translated into Japanese. Give your business card with the Japanese side facing the recipient. Make sure your business card includes your title, so your Japanese colleagues know your status within your organization. Business cards are given and received with two hands and a slight bow. Examine any business card you receive very carefully. During a meeting, place the business cards on the table in front of you in the order people are seated. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

49 Week 11 SOUTH KOREA Bina Nusantara HO 0708

50 Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter
Week 11 SOUTH KOREA Facts and Statistics Location: Eastern Asia, southern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea Capital: Seoul Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter Population: 48,598,175 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic Make-up: homogeneous (except for about 20,000 Chinese) Religions: no affiliation 46%, Christian 26%, Buddhist 26%, Confucianist 1%, other 1% Government: republic Official Language: Korean Bina Nusantara HO 0708

51 After WW II, Korean was partitioned into 2
Week 11 Cultural Values After WW II, Korean was partitioned into 2 countries: North Korea and South Korea South Korea is a democratic country and North Korea as a strict communist society South Korea (along with Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong) is often referred to as one of the 4 mini’s dragons’ of Asia Except for a small Chinese minority, the people are all ethnic Korean Bina Nusantara HO 0708

52 Korea is an hierarchical society with status
Week 11 Cultural Values Korea is an hierarchical society with status determined primarily by age, sex, family and profession Education is highly valued and is seen as the path to success The most important occasions in a Korean’s life: marriage, 1st and 60th birthdays Women have to obey 3 men: father, husband and son (Confucian tradition) Late for appointment is not acceptable Bina Nusantara HO 0708

53 The family is the most important part of Korean life.
Week 11 Cultural Values The family is the most important part of Korean life. In Confucian tradition, the father is the head of the family and it is his responsibility to provide food, clothing and shelter, and to approve the marriages of family members. The eldest son has special duties: first to his parents, then to his brothers from older to younger, then to his sons, then to his wife, and lastly to his daughters. Family welfare is much more important than the needs of the individual. Members of the family are tied to each other because the actions of one family member reflect on the rest of the family. In many cases the family register can trace a family's history, through male ancestors, for over 500 years. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

54 Week 11 Language and Communication
Verbal Communication Korean language has its own phonetic alphabet “hangul” The family name comes before given names – usually a one-syllable name, and is followed by one or two-syllable given name (e.g. Kim, Lee, Yi, Pak, Chong) Harmony and respect is valued The concept of Kibun is central – refers to a person’s mood or current state of mind Bina Nusantara HO 0708

55 Week 11 Language and Communication
Another important concept is nunchi (the ability to sense another’s kibun) Criticism and disagreement should be expressed only in an indirect way In getting to know one another, marital status and number of children are not seen as being too personal Strangers tend to be viewed as less important (apology is not usually made if strangers are unintentionally bumped or stepped-upon) Comfortable with silence Bina Nusantara HO 0708

56 Week 11 Language and Communication
Non-Verbal Communication It is quite common for them to maintain composure when they feel sorrow, embarrassment, anger or shame They avoid saying “No”, but they may tip their head back and audibly suck air in through their teeth to signal “No” Normally Koreans look to either side when not keeping eye-contact. Eye contact is made much less frequently It is not unusual to see members of the same sex (especially young people) holding hands or touching one another in affectionate ways Bina Nusantara HO 0708

57 Week 11 Language and Communication
When passing and receiving something, it is polite to use both hands The manner of greeting depends on age and status. A bow is the traditional greeting, but men usually also shake hands People tend to cover their mouth when yawning or using a toothpick Pointing & beckoning (with the hand) is best avoided with Koreans They tend to use non-verbal communication because it is awkward for Koreans to talk to strangers Bina Nusantara HO 0708

58 Week 11 The Concept of Kibun
Kibun is a word with no literal English translation; the closest terms are pride, face, mood, feelings, or state of mind. If you hurt someone's kibun you hurt their pride, cause them to lose dignity, and lose face. Korean interpersonal relationships operate on the principle of harmony. It is important to maintain a peaceful, comfortable atmosphere at all times, even if it means telling a "white lie". Kibun enters into every facet of Korean life. It is important to know how to judge the state of someone else's kibun, how to avoid hurting it, and how to keep your own kibun at the same time. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

59 Week 11 The Concept of Kibun
In business, a manager's kibun is damaged if his subordinates do not show proper respect. A subordinate's kibun is damaged if his manager criticizes him in public. Nunchi is the ability to determine another person's kibun by using the eye. Since this is a culture where social harmony is crucial, being able to judge another person's state of mind is critical to maintain the person's kibun. Nunchi is accomplished by watching body language and listening to the tone of voice as well as what is said. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

60 Week 11 Dining Preferences
Koreans will try different kinds of food, especially if it is fresh and light – tropical fresh fruit and fish are popular Korean food is generally spicy By tradition, all the food is put on the table at the same time A meal is not considered a meal is there is no rice The rice is almost always accompanied by Kimch’I – a spicy pickled dish of which the chief ingredients are Korean cabbage and radish Beef is the most popular meat The seven (7) basic flavours of Korean food are garlic, ginger, black pepper, spring onions, soy sauce, sesame oil and roasted sesame seeds Bina Nusantara HO 0708

61 Week 11 Dining Preferences
A spoon and chopsticks are used for eating Eating any food with the fingers is seen as impolite Everything is eaten from bowls, not plates Nose-blowing and sneezing are unacceptable, particularly at the table Koreans are keen tea-drinkers Drinking alcohol is important for males for social and business reasons Drinks are poured with the right hand supported by the left and glasses are received with both hands Glasses are sometimes exchanges, being symbolic of the family spirit that Korean value Whisky is popular, are as beer and wine Water is served at the end of the meal Bina Nusantara HO 0708

62 Week 11 Service Preferences
Four (4) is an unlucky number, so it is best to avoid putting Koreans on the 4th floor Tipping is not widespread Usually 10% service charge and 10% tax are added to hotel and restaurant bills Bina Nusantara HO 0708

63 Week 11 Meeting Etiquette
Greetings follow strict rules of protocol. Many South Koreans shake hands with expatriates after the bow, thereby blending both cultural styles. The person of lower status bows to the person of higher status, yet it is the most senior person who initiates the handshake. The person who initiates the bow says, "man-na- suh pan-gop-sumnida", which means "pleased to meet you." Wait to be introduced at a social gathering and when you leave, say good-bye and bow to each person individually. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

64 Week 11 Gift Giving Preferences
Gifts express a great deal about a relationship and are always reciprocated. It is inconsiderate to give someone an expensive gift if you know that they cannot afford to reciprocate accordingly. Bring fruit or good quality chocolates or flowers if invited to a Korean's home. Gifts should be wrapped nicely. The number 4 is considered unlucky, so gifts should not be given in multiples of 4. Giving 7 of an item is considered lucky Wrap gifts in red or yellow paper, since these are royal colours. Alternatively, use yellow or pink paper since they denote happiness. Do not wrap gifts in green, white, or black paper. Do not sign a card in red ink. Use both hands when offering a gift. Gifts are not opened when received. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

65 Week 11 Dining Preferences
If you are invited to a South Korean's house: It is common for guests to meet at a common spot and travel together. You may arrive up to 30 minutes late without giving offence. Remove your shoes before entering the house. The hosts greet each guest individually. The host pours drinks for the guests in their presence. The hostess does not pour drinks. The hosts usually accompany guests to the gate or to their car because they believe that it is insulting to wish your guests farewell indoors. Send a thank you note the following day after being invited to dinner. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

66 Week 11 Business Meeting Etiquette
Appointments are required and should be made 3 to 4 weeks in advance. You should arrive on time for meetings as this demonstrates respect for the person you are meeting. The most senior South Korean generally enters the room first. It is a good idea to send both an agenda and back-up material including information about your company and client testimonials prior to the meeting. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

67 Week 11 Meeting Etiquette
The main purpose of the first meeting is to get to know each other. Meetings are used to understand a client's needs and challenges. They lay the foundation for building the relationship. Do not remove your jacket unless the most senior South Korean does so. Have all written materials available in both English and Korean. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

68 Have one side of your business card translated into Korean.
Week 11 Business Card Business cards are exchanged after the initial introductions in a highly ritualized manner. Have one side of your business card translated into Korean. Using both hands, present your business card with the Korean side facing up so that it is readable by the recipient. Examine any business card you receive carefully. Put the business cards in a business card case or a portfolio. Never write on someone's business card in their presence. Bina Nusantara HO 0708

69 QUESTIONS? Bina Nusantara HO 0708

70 Koreans value the concept of Kibun. What is it?
Week 11 Review Questions Koreans value the concept of Kibun. What is it? Please explain the concept of “face” in Japanese society. Compare the business negotiations in China and Japan. What can you conclude? What kind of presents you should give for Japanese? Chinese? and Koreans? What to avoid? And why? What are the Japanese’ preferences for accommodation? Bina Nusantara HO 0708

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