Age Concurrent disease states Concurrent drug therapy Sedation Pharmacolgy Individual responses are dependant on:
Chloral Hydrate Hypnotic- “Short term sedative and hypnotic given prior to nonpainful procedures
Chloral Hydrate Usually given to Outpatients due to relative low risk profile. For non- painful procedures only. EEGs MRI/CT Scans Echocardiograms
Chloral Hydrate PO/Rectal Dose: 50mg/kg give 30-60 minutes prior to procedure. Can repeat x1 25mg/kg Not to exceed 100mg/kg in a 24 hour period
Chloral Hydrate Expect a moderate decrease in heart rate and blood pressure in patients ASA I-II For infants < 6 months there is ↑ risk for apnea and hypoxia. Age a limiting factor. High failure rate in children > 4 years.
Pentobarbital : Nembutal® Barbituate- Non elective central nervous system depressants primarily used as Hypnotic sedative for non painful procedures.
Nembutal PO/Rectal/IM/IV Dose for procedural sedation: 4mg/kg, may repeat 2mg/kg, max 100mg
Nembutal: precautions Rapid IV injection ie, can cause respiratory depression, apnea, laryngospasm, bronchospasm and hypotension Recommended to infuse IV dose over 10-30 minutes. Can significantly decrease cardiac output and should be avoided with CHF
Benzodiazepines Midazolam- Versed® Lorazepam - Ativan® Induce anterograde amnesia (not retrograde) May have some opioid sparing effect by ↓ anticipatory pain response
Midazolam -® Versed Most commonly used Benzo for preoperative and pre-procedural sedation. Undergoes hepatic metabolism and renal excretion and prolonged effects seen with dysfunction of either system Sedative, amnestic and anxiolytic with no analgesic properties Commonly used with an opioid analgesic such as Fentanly®
Versed® Onset in 1 to 2 minutes Duration 30 min Caution for respiratory depression and hypotension
Dosage for children having procedures: PO; 0.5 mg/kg/dose may repeat once with 0.25mg/kg/dose. Max dose: 20mg. IV: 0.05-0.1 mg/kg dose. May repeat over several minutes to a max dose of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg. Intranasal: 0.2-0.3 mg/kg. May repeat in 15 min Adults: 0.5 mg to 2mg slow push over at least 2 min. Usual dose needed is 2.5 – 5 mg. > 5mg generally not needed.
Fentanyl- Sublimaze® Used in combination with Versed for many years due to rapid onset and effectiveness Synthetic opioid Metabolized by the liver Short duration of effect Pure analgesic (should not be used alone) Least histamine release of opiates
Caution: Chest rigidity with rapid infusion and hypotension
Fentanyl Dosage for Pediatrics: -IM or IV 0.5-1.0 mcg/kg/dose -onset 1-2 min -lasts 30 minutes
Etomidate Classified as a General Anesthetic Ultra short acting nonbarbiturate hypnotic used for the induction of Anesthesia Used for Sedation in Adults 0.2mg/kg IV given over 30-60 seconds Onset <1minutes Duration 3-5 minutes Limited data, Action too short for some procedures
Ketamine-Ketalar® Classified as a general anesthetic Rapid acting dissociative anesthetic that produces a profound analgesic effect Gaining favor in children due to reliable effects and strong safety profile
Ketamine When patients are on ketamine they may appear awake. Eyes may remain open, they may have nystagmus. Ketamine is a potent phencyclidine deriviative Produces potent analgesia and rapid sedation while it preserves respiratory drive and airway protective reflexes
Ketamine IV 1-2 mg/kg/dose -Onset is 1 minute -Duration 10-20 minutes IM 2-4 mg -onset 5 minutes -duration 15-45 minutes
Ketamine Caution : Nystagmus can occur along with hypersecretions, agitation Delirium, vomiting, myoclonus and laryngospasm
Propofol- Classified as a general anesthetic -Lower doses sedation hypnosis Anmestic, anxiolytic, antiemetic, and antiepileptic properties No Analgesic effects
Propofol Dosing 2.5 -3.5 mg/kg/ dose over 20- 30 seconds Onset 10-30 seconds Duration 10-20 minutes For prolonged procedures may require continuous infusion 125- 300mcg/kg/minute. (smaller children may require smaller infusion rates.
Propofol Caution Profound Respiratory Depression Profound Irreversible bradycardia Profound Hypotension Avoid with Soy or Egg allergies