Levels of Sedation Minimal Sedation (anxiolysis) Moderate Sedation/Analgesia (formerly called conscious sedation) Deep Sedation
American Association of Anesthesiologists: ASA Risk Classification ASA I - A healthy patient ASA II - A patient with mild systemic disease ASA III - A patient with severe systemic disease (limits activity but not incapacitating) ASA IV- A patient with an incapacitating systemic disease that is a constant threat to life ASA V- A moribund patient not expected to survive 24 hours with or without surgery
Pre-sedation Risk Assessment Ampule Allergies Medications Past Medical History Last Meal Events leading up to the need for sedation
Other Risks Previous problems with anesthesia or sedation Known difficult intubation Cranial facial syndromes Decreased airway protective reflexes Obesity GERD or problems with gastric motility
Narcotics Fentanyl –Bolus= 0.5-1.0 mcg/kg ( MAY REPEAT Qq5-10MIN ) –Rigid Chest Syndrome Morphine - Bolus=0.05- 0.1mg/kg (may repeat q5-10min ) –Histamine Release –+ Sedative and Hypnotic properties Narcotics have both sedative and analgesic qualities
Benzodiazepines Midazolam –Bolus=0.05- 0.2 mg/kg Lorazepam –Bolus=0.05- 0.2 mg/kg Benzodiazepines have both sedative and Amnesic qualities NO Analgesic Properties
Ketamine Dissociative anesthetic: phencyclidine derivative (PCP) IV - 0.5 to 2mg/kg IM -3-4 mg/kg + Analgesia/Sedation Contraindicated Increased Intracranial Pressure Increased Intraoccular Pressure Onset of action IV 1-2 minute – IM 3-10 minutes Can cause larygospasms and hallucinogenic emergent reactions.
Propofol General Anesthetic Agent NO Analgesic Properties Advantages: –Rapid Onset and Emergence –Profound Sedation Disadvantages: –Metabolic Acidosis –Severe SVR
Propofol - dosing Induction 2.5 – 3.5 mg/kg Over 20-30 seconds Repeat as child emerges Continuous Infusion 5-50 mcg/kg/hr
Reversal Agents Narcan: For Narcotic Reversal dose: 1-10mcg/kg IV push (1/10 th of dose recommended for full reversal of narcotic poisoning) May need to repeat. OK: IV, IM, endotracheal Flumazenil: For Benzodiazepine Reversal- Can reverse benzo-induced respiratory depression and paradoxical excitatory reactions. dose: 0.01-0.02 mg/kg. May be repeated.