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An Introduction to Artificial Immune Systems Dr. Jonathan Timmis Computing Laboratory University of Kent at Canterbury CT2 7NF. UK.

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Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Artificial Immune Systems Dr. Jonathan Timmis Computing Laboratory University of Kent at Canterbury CT2 7NF. UK."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Introduction to Artificial Immune Systems Dr. Jonathan Timmis Computing Laboratory University of Kent at Canterbury CT2 7NF. UK. http:/ ES2001 Cambridge. December 2001.

2 Overview of Tutorial What are we going to do?: First Half: Describe what is an AIS Why bother with the immune system? Be familiar with relevant immunology Second Half: Appreciation of were AIS are used Be familiar with the building blocks of AIS Resources

3 Immune metaphors Immune System Idea!Idea ‘ Other areas Artificial Immune Systems

4 Why the Immune System? Recognition Anomaly detection Noise tolerance Robustness Feature extraction Diversity Reinforcement learning Memory Distributed Multi-layered Adaptive

5 Artificial Immune Systems AIS are computational systems inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models, which are applied to complex problem domains (de Castro & Timmis, 2001)

6 Some History Developed from the field of theoretical immunology in the mid 1980’s. Suggested we ‘might look’ at the IS 1990 – Bersini first use of immune algos to solve problems Forrest et al – Computer Security mid 1990’s Hunt et al, mid 1990’s – Machine learning

7 Scope of AIS Fault and anomaly detection Data Mining (machine learning, Pattern recognition) Agent based systems Scheduling Autonomous control Optimisation Robotics Security of information systems

8 Part I – Basic Immunology

9 Role of the Immune System Protect our bodies from infection Primary immune response Launch a response to invading pathogens Secondary immune response Remember past encounters Faster response the second time around

10 How does it work?

11 Where is it?

12 Multiple layers of the immune system

13 Immune Pattern Recognition The immune recognition is based on the complementarity between the binding region of the receptor and a portion of the antigen called epitope. Antibodies present a single type of receptor, antigens might present several epitopes. This means that different antibodies can recognize a single antigen

14 Antibodies Antibody MoleculeAntibody Production

15 Clonal Selection

16 Main Properties of Clonal Selection (Burnet, 1978) Elimination of self antigens Proliferation and differentiation on contact of mature lymphocytes with antigen Restriction of one pattern to one differentiated cell and retention of that pattern by clonal descendants; Generation of new random genetic changes, subsequently expressed as diverse antibody patterns by a form of accelerated somatic mutation

17 T-cells Regulation of other cells Active in the immune response Helper T-cells Killer T-cells

18 Reinforcement Learning and Immune Memory Repeated exposure to an antigen throughout a lifetime Primary, secondary immune responses Remembers encounters No need to start from scratch Memory cells Associative memory

19 Learning (2)

20 Immune Network Theory Idiotypic network ( Jerne, 1974) B cells co-stimulate each other Treat each other a bit like antigens Creates an immunological memory

21 Immune Network Theory(2)

22 Shape Space Formalism Repertoire of the immune system is complete ( Perelson, 1989) Extensive regions of complementarity Some threshold of recognition  V   V   V  V       

23 Self/Non-Self Recognition Immune system needs to be able to differentiate between self and non-self cells Antigenic encounters may result in cell death, therefore Some kind of positive selection Some element of negative selection

24 Summary so far …. Immune system has some remarkable properties Pattern recognition Learning Memory So, is it useful?

25 Some questions for you !

26 Part II –Artificial Immune Systems

27 This Section General Framework for describing and constructing AIS A short review of where AIS are used today Can not cover them all, far too many I am not an expert in all areas (earn more money if I was) Where are AIS headed?

28 What do want from a Framework? In a computational world we work with representations and processes. Therefore, we need: To be able to describe immune system components Be able to describe their interactions Quite high level abstractions Capture general purpose processes that can be applied to various areas

29 AIS Framework De Castro & Timmis, 2002 Immune Representations Immune Algorithms Guidelines for developing AIS

30 Representation – Shape Space Describe the general shape of a molecule Describe interactions between molecules Degree of binding between molecules Complement threshold

31 Representation Vectors Ab =  Ab 1, Ab 2,..., Ab L  Ag =  Ag 1, Ag 2,..., Ag L  Real-valued shape-space Integer shape-space Hamming shape-space Symbolic shape-space

32 Define their Interaction Define the term Affinity Affinity is related to distance Euclidian Other distance measures such as Hamming, Manhattan etc. etc. Affinity Threshold

33 Basic Immune Models and Algorithms Bone Marrow Models Negative Selection Algorithms Clonal Selection Algorithm Somatic Hypermutation Immune Network Models

34 Bone Marrow Models Gene libraries are used to create antibodies from the bone marrow Antibody production through a random concatenation from gene libraries Simple or complex libraries

35 Negative Selection Algorithms Forrest 1994: Idea taken from the negative selection of T-cells in the thymus Applied initially to computer security Split into two parts: Censoring Monitoring

36 Negative Selection Algorithm Each copy of the algorithm is unique, so that each protected location is provided with a unique set of detectors Detection is probabilistic, as a consequence of using different sets of detectors to protect each entity A robust system should detect any foreign activity rather than looking for specific known patterns of intrusion. No prior knowledge of anomaly (non-self) is required The size of the detector set does not necessarily increase with the number of strings being protected The detection probability increases exponentially with the number of independent detection algorithms There is an exponential cost to generate detectors with relation to the number of strings being protected (self). Solution to the above in D’haeseleer et al. (1996)

37 Clonal Selection Algorithm de Castro & von Zuben, 2001 Randomly initialise a population (P) For each pattern in Ag Determine affinity to each P’ Select n highest affinity from P Clone and mutate prop. to affinity with Ag Add new mutants to P endFor Select highest affinity P to form part of M Replace n number of random new ones Until stopping criteria

38 Immune Network Models Timmis & Neal, 2000 Used immune network theory as a basis, proposed the AINE algorithm Initialize AIN For each antigen Present antigen to each ARB in the AIN Calculate ARB stimulation level Allocate B cells to ARBs, based on stimulation level Remove weakest ARBs (ones that do not hold any B cells) If termination condition met exit else Clone and mutate remaining ARBs Integrate new ARBs into AIN

39 Immune Network Models De Castro & Von Zuben (2000c) aiNET, based in similar principles At each iteration step do For each antigen do Determine affinity to all network cells Select n highest affinity network cells Clone these n selected cells Increase the affinity of the cells to antigen by reducing the distance between them (greedy search) Calculate improved affinity of these n cells Re-select a number of improved cells and place into matrix M Remove cells from M whose affinity is below a set threshold Calculate cell-cell affinity within the network Remove cells from network whose affinity is below a certain threshold Concatenate original network and M to form new network Determine whole network inter-cell affinities and remove all those below the set threshold Replace r% of worst individuals by novel randomly generated ones Test stopping criterion

40 Somatic Hypermutation Mutation rate in proportion to affinity Very controlled mutation in the natural immune system Trade-off between the normalized antibody affinity D* and its mutation rate ,

41 Part III - Applications

42 Anomaly Detection The normal behavior of a system is often characterized by a series of observations over time. The problem of detecting novelties, or anomalies, can be viewed as finding deviations of a characteristic property in the system. For computer scientists, the identification of computational viruses and network intrusions is considered one of the most important anomaly detection tasks

43 Virus Detection Protect the computer from unwanted viruses Initial work by Kephart 1994 More of a computer immune system

44 Virus Detection (2) Okamoto & Ishida (1999a,b) proposed a distributed approach Detected viruses by matching self-information first few bytes of the head of a file the file size and path, etc. against the current host files. Viruses were neutralized by overwriting the self- information on the infected files Recovering was attained by copying the same file from other uninfected hosts through the computer network

45 Virus Detection (3) Other key works include: A distributed self adaptive architecture for a computer virus immune system (Lamont, 200) Use a set of co-operating agents to detect non-self patterns Immune SystemComputational System Pathogens (antigens)Computer viruses B-, T-cells and antibodiesDetectors ProteinsStrings Antibody/antigen bindingPattern matching

46 Security Somayaji et al. (1997) outlined mappings between IS and computer systems A security systems need Confidentiality Integrity Availability Accountability Correctness

47 IS to Security Systems Immune SystemNetwork Environment Static Data SelfUncorrupted data Non-selfAny change to self Active Processes on Single Host CellActive process in a computer Multicellular organismComputer running multiple processes Population of organismsSet of networked computers Skin and innate immunitySecurity mechanisms, like passwords, groups, file permissions, etc. Adaptive immunityLymphocyte process able to query other processes to seek for abnormal behaviors Autoimmune responseFalse alarm SelfNormal behavior Non-selfAbnormal behavior Network of Mutually Trusting Computers Organ in an animalEach computer in a network environment

48 Network Security Hofmeyr & Forrest (1999, 2000): developing an artificial immune system that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse and adaptive, with applications to computer network security. Kim & Bentley (2001). Hybrid approach of clonal selection and negative selection.

49 Forrests Model AIS for computer network security. (a) Architecture. (b) Life cycle of a detector. Randomlycreated Immature Mature & Naive Death Activated Memory No matchduring tolerization 010011100010.....001101 Exceed activation threshold Don’t exceed activation threshold No co stimulation Co stimulation Match during tolerization Datapathtriple (,, ftp) Broadcast LAN ip: port: 2000 Internal host External host ip: port: 22 Host sensitivity level secondary representation Detector set {immature, naive, memory} Last activated matches 0100111010101000110......101010010 Detector state Activation flag

50 Novelty Detection Image Segmentation : McCoy & Devarajan (1997) Detecting road contours in aerial images Used a negative selection algorithm

51 Hardware Fault Tolerance Immunotronics (Bradley & Tyrell, 2000) Use negative selection algorithm for fault tolerance in hardware Table 4.1. Immune SystemHardware Fault Tolerance Recognition of selfRecognition of valid state/state transition Recognition of non-selfRecognition of invalid state/state transition LearningLearning correct states and transitions Humoral immunityError detection and recovery Clonal deletionIsolation of self-recognizing tolerance conditions Inactivation of antigenReturn to normal operation Life of an organismOperation lifetime of a hardware

52 Machine Learning Early work on DNA Recognition Cooke and Hunt, 1995 Use immune network theory Evolve a structure to use for prediction of DNA sequences 90% classification rate Quite good at the time, but needed more corroboration of results

53 Unsupervised Learning Timmis, 2000 Based on Hunts work Complete redesign of algorithm: AINE Immune metadynamics Shape space Few initial parameters Stabilises to find a core pattern within a network of B cells

54 Results (Timmis, 2000)

55 Immune System : AIS B-cell B-cell recognition Immune Network Somatic Hypermutation Antigens Antigen binding Initial Data Artificial Recognition Ball ARB Network Mutation of ARB’s Training data Matching between antigen and ARB’s

56 Another approach de Castro and von Zuben, 2000 aiNET cf. SOFM Use similar ideas to Timmis Immune network theory Shape space Suppression mechanism different Eliminate self similar cells under a set threshold Clone based on antigen match, network not taken into account

57 Results (de Castro & von Zuben, 2001) Test ProblemResult from aiNET

58 Supervised Approach Carter, 2000 Pattern recognition and classification system: Immunos-81 Use T-cells, B-cells, antibodies and amino-acid library Builds a library of data types and classes Watkins, 2001 Resource allocated mechanism (based on network models) Good classification rates on sample data sets

59 Robotics Behaviour Arbitration Ishiguro et al. (1996, 1997) : Immune network theory to evolve a behaviour among a set of agents Collective Behaviour Emerging collective behaviour through communicating robots (Jun et al, 1999) Immune network theory to suppress or encourage robots behaviour

60 Scheduling Hart et al. (1998) and Hart & Ross (1999a) Proposed an AIS to produce robust schedules for a dynamic job-shop scheduling problem in which jobs arrive continually, and the environment is subject to changes. Investigated is an AIS could be evolved using a GA approach then be used to produce sets of schedules which together cover a range of contingencies, predictable and unpredictable. Model included evolution through gene libraries, affinity maturation of the immune response and the clonal selection principle.

61 Diagnosis Ishida (1993) Immune network model applied to the process diagnosis problem Later was elaborated as a sensor network that could diagnose sensor faults by evaluating reliability of data from sensors, and process faults by evaluating reliability of constraints among data. Main immune features employed: Recognition is performed by distributed agents which dynamically interact with each other; Each agent reacts based solely on its own knowledge; and Memory is realized as stable equilibrium points of the dynamical network.

62 Comparing Approaches AISANNEA ComponentsAttribute string in SArtificial neuronsStrings representing chromosomes Location of componentsDynamic locationsPre-defined/dynamic (deterministic) locations Dynamic locations StructureSet of discrete or networked elements Networked neuronsDiscrete elements Knowledge storageAttribute strings/ network connections Connection strengthsChromosomal strings DynamicsLearning/evolutionLearningEvolution MetadynamicsElimination/recruitment of components Constructive/pruning algorithmsElimination/ recruitment of individuals Interaction with other components Through recognition of attribute strings or network connections Through network connectionsThrough recombination operators and/or fitness function Interaction with the environment Recognition of an input pattern or evaluation of an objective function Input units receive the environmental stimuli Evaluation of an objective function ThresholdInfluences the affinity of elements Influences neuron activationInfluences genetic variations RobustnessPopulation/network of individuals Network of individualsPopulation of individuals StateConcentration and affinityActivation level of output neurons Genetic information in chromosomes ControlImmune principle, theory or process Learning algorithmEvolutionary algorithm Generalization capability Cross-reactionNetwork extrapolationDetection of common schemas Non-linearityBinding activation functionNeuronal activation functionNot explicit CharacterizationEvolutionary and/or connectionist According to the learning algorithm Evolutionary

63 Summary Covered much, but there is much work not covered (so apologies to anyone for missing theirs) Immunology Immune metaphors Antibodies and their interactions Immune learning and memory Self/non-self Negative selection Application of immune metaphors

64 The Future Rapidly growing field that I think is very exciting Much work is very diverse Framework helps a little More formal approach required? Wide possible application domains What is it that makes the immune system unique?

65 More Information

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