Department of Electrical Engineering

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Department of Electrical Engineering
EELE 5490, Fall, Wireless Communications Ali S. Afana Department of Electrical Engineering Class 10 Dec. 20h, 2009

Duplexing It is sharing the media between two parties.
If the communication between two parties is one way, the it is called simplex communication. If the communication between two parties is two- way, then it is called duplex communication. Simplex communication is achieved by default by using a single wireless channel (frequency band) to transmit from sender to receiver. Duplex communication achieved by: Time Division (TDD) Frequency Division (FDD) Some other method like a random access method 2

Duplexing Usually the two parties that want to communication in a duplex manner (both send and receive) are: A mobile station A base station Two famous methods for duplexing in cellular systems are: TDD: Time Division Duplex FDD: Frequency Division Duplex 3

Duplexing - FDD A duplex channel consists of two simplex channel with different carrier frequencies Forward band: carries traffic from base to mobile Reverse band: carries traffic from mobile to base F M B R Base Station Mobile Station Reverse Channel Forward Channel fc,R fc,,F frequency Frequency separation Frequency separation should be carefully decided Frequency separation is constant 4

Duplexing - TDD A single radio channel (carrier frequency) is shared in time in a deterministic manner. The time is slotted with fixed slot length (sec) Some slots are used for forward channel (traffic from base to mobile) Some slots are used for reverse channel (traffic from mobile to base) B M Base Station Mobile Station Slot number channel F R F R F R F R …. Reverse Channel Forward Channel time Ti Ti+1 Time separation 5

Duplexing – TDD versus FDD
FDD is used in radio systems that can allocate individual radio frequencies for each user. For example analog systems: AMPS In FDD channels are allocated by a base station. A channel for a mobile is allocated dynamically All channels that a base station will use are allocated usually statically. More suitable for wide-area cellular networks: GSM, AMPS all use FDD TDD Can only be used in digital wireless systems (digital modulation). Requires rigid timing and synchronization Mostly used in short-range and fixed wireless systems so that propagation delay between base and mobile do not change much with respect to location of the mobile. Such as cordless phones… 6

Multiple Access - Coordinated
We will look now sharing the media by more than two users. Three major multiple access schemes Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Could be used in narrowband or wideband systems Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Usually used narrowband systems Code Division Multiple Access Used in wideband systems. 7

Narrow- and Wideband Systems
Narrowband System The channel bandwidth (frequency band allocated for the channel is small) More precisely, the channel bandwidth is large compared to the coherence bandwidth of the channel (remember that coherence bandwidth is related with reciprocal of the delay spread of multipath channel) AMPS is a narrowband system (channel bandwidth is 30kHz in one-way) Wideband Systems The channel bandwidth is large More precisely, the channel bandwidth is much larger that the coherence bandwidth of the multipath channel. A large number of users can access the same channel (frequency band) at the same time. 8

Narrow- and Wideband Systems
Narrowband Systems Could be employing one of the following multiple access and duplexing schems FDMA/FDD TDMA/FDD TDMA/TDD Wideband systems Could be employing of the following multiple access and duplexing schemes CDMA/FDD CDMA/TDD 9

Cellular Systems and MAC
Multiple Access Technique AMPS FDMA/FDD GSM TDMA/FDD USDC (IS-54 and IS-136) PDC CT2 Cordless Phone FDMA/TDD DECT Cordless Phone US IS-95 CDMA/FDD W-CDMA CDMA/TDD cdma2000 10

Frequency Division Multiple Access
Individual radio channels are assigned to individual users Each user is allocated a frequency band (channel) During this time, no other user can share the channel Base station allocates channels to the users B f1,F f2,F fN,F f1,R f2,R fN,R M M M 11

Features of FDMA An FDMA channel carries one phone circuit at a time
If channel allocated to a user is idle, then it is not used by someone else: waste of resource. Mobile and base can transmit and receive simultaneously Bandwidth of FDMA channels are relatively low. Symbol time is usually larger (low data rate) than the delay spread of the multipath channel (implies that inter-symbol interference is low) Lower complexity systems that TDMA systems. 12

Capacity of FDMA Systems
Frequency spectrum allocated for FDMA system Guard Band channel Guard Band Bt : Total spectrum allocation Bguard: Guard band allocated at the edge of the spectrum band Bc : Bandwidth of a channel AMPS has 12.MHz simplex spectrum band, 10Khz guard band, 30kHz channel bandwidth (simplex): Number of channels is 416. 13

Time Division Multiple Access
The allocated radio spectrum for the system is divided into time slots In each slot a user can transmit or receive A user occupiess a cyclically repeating slots. A channel is logically defined as a particular time slot that repeats with some period. TDMA systems buffer the data, until its turn (time slot) comes to transmit. This is called buffer-and-burst method. Leaky bucket Requires digital modulation 14

TDMA Concept Downstream Traffic: Forward Channels: (from base to mobiles) 1 2 3 N 1 2 3 …. N Logical forward channel to a mobile Base station broadcasts to mobiles on each slot Upstream Traffic: Reverse Channels: (from mobile to base) 1 2 3 N 1 2 3 …. N Logical reverse channel from a mobile A mobile transmits to the base station in its allocated slot Upstream and downstream traffic uses of the two different carrier frequencies. 15

TDMA Frames Multiple, fixed number of slots are put together into a frame. A frame repeats. In TDMA/TDD: half of the slots in the frame is used for forward channels, the other is used for reverse channels. In TDMA/FDD: a different carrier frequency is used for a reverse or forward Different frames travel in each carrier frequency in different directions (from mobile to base and vice versa). Each frame contains the time slots either for reverse channels or forward channel depending on the direction of the frame. 16

General Frame and Time Slot Structure in TDMA Systems
One TDMA Frame Preamble Information Trail Bits Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot N Guard Bits Sync Bits Control Bits Information CRC One TDMA Slot A Frame repeats in time 17

A TDMA Frame Preamble contains address and synchronization info to identify base station and mobiles to each other Guard times are used to allow synchronization of the receivers between different slots and frames Different mobiles may have different propagation delays to a base station because of different distances. 18

Efficiency of a Frame/TDMA-System
Each frame contains overhead bits and data bits. Efficiency of frame is defined as the percentage of data (information) bits to the total frame size in bits. bT: total number of bits in a frame Tf: frame duration (seconds) bOH: number of overhead bits Number of channels in a TDMA cell: m: maximum number of TDMA users supported in a radio channel 19

TDMA Efficiency GSM: 30% overhead DECT: 30% overhead IS-54: 20% overhead. TDMA is usually combined with FDMA Neighboring cells be allocated and using different carrier frequencies (FDMA). Inside a cell TDMA can be used. Cells may be re-using the same frequency if they are far from each-other. There may be more than one carrier frequency (radio channel) allocated and used inside each cell. Each carrier frequency (radio channel) may be using TDMA to further multiplex more user (i.e. having TDMA logical channels inside radio channels) For example: GSM uses multiple radio channels per cell site. Each radio channel has 200KHz bandwidth and has 8 time slots (8 logical channels). Hence GSM is using FHMA combined with TDMA. 20

Contemporary TDMA Systems
GSM (Europa) IS-54 (USA) PDC (Japan) DECT (European Cordless) Bit Rate 270.8 Kbps 48.6 Kbps 42 Kbps 1.152 Mbps Bandwidth 200 KHz 30 KHz 25 KHz 1.728 MHz Time Slot 0.577 ms 6.7 ms 0.417 ms Upstream slots per frame 8 3 12 Duplexing FDD TDD Efficiency of Time Slots 73 % 80 % 67 % Modulation GMSK p/4 DQPSK Adaptive Equalized Mandatory Optional None 21

Features of TDMA Enables the sharing of a single radio channel among N users Requires high data-rate per radio channel to support N users simultaneously. High data-rate on a radio channel with fixed bandwidth requires adaptive equalizers to be used in multipath environments (remember the RSM delay spread s parameter) Transmission occurs in bursts (not continues) Enables power saving by going to sleep modes in unrelated slots Discontinues transmission also enables mobile assisted handoff Requires synchronization of the receivers. Need guard bits, sync bits. large overhead per slot. Allocation of slots to mobile users should not be uniform. It may depend on the traffic requirement of mobiles. This brings extra flexibility and efficiency compared to FDMA systems. 22

Questions? 23