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Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communications

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Presentation on theme: "Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communications"— Presentation transcript:

1 Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communications
2005/07/06 Weng Chien-Erh

2 Table of Contents(1) Introduction FDMA TDMA CDMA SS (Spread Spectrum)

3 Table of Contents(2) Packet Radio Pure ALOHA Slotted ALOHA CSMA
Reservation Protocol Reservation-ALOHA PRMA NC-PRMA

4 Introduction (1) Multiple Access:
Enable many mobile users to share simultaneously radio spectrum. Provide for the sharing of channel capacity between a number of transmitters at different locations. Aim to share a channel between two or more signals in such way that each signal can be received without interference from another.

5 Introduction (2)

6 Introduction (3) In conventional telephone systems, it is possible to talk and listen simultaneously, called duplexing. Duplexing Allow the possibility of talking and listening simultaneously. Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) Provides two distinct bands of frequencies for every user Time Division Duplex (TDD) Multiple users share a signal channel by taking turns in time domain Each duplexing channel has both a forward time slot and a reverse time slot to facilitate bidirectional communication.

7 Introduction (4)

8 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) (1)
Each transmitter is allocated a channel with a particular bandwidth. All transmitters are able to transmit simultaneously.

9 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) (2)
Allocation of separate channels to FDMA signals

10 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) (3)
Time-frequency characteristic of FDMA

11 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) (4)
Features of FDMA If an FDMA channel is not in sue, then it sits idle and can’t be used by other users. Transmit simultaneously and continuously. FDMA is usually implemented in narrowband systems. Its symbol time is large as compared to the average delay spread.

12 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) (5)
Features of FDMA (Cont.) For continuous transmission, fewer bits are needed for overhead purposes (such as synchronization and framing bits) as compared to TDMA. FDMA uses duplexers since both TX and RX operate at the same time.

13 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (1)
Transmitter share a common channel. Only one transmitter is allowed to transmit at a time. Synchronous TDMA: access to the channel is restricted to regular. Asynchronous TDMA: a station may transmit at any time that the channel is free.

14 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (2)
Allocation of time slot in TDMA

15 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (3)
Time-frequency characteristic of synchronous TDMA

16 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (4)
Features of TDMA (Cont.) TDMA systems divide the radio spectrum into time slots. Each user occupies a cyclically repeating time slot. Transmit data in a buffer-and-burst method, thus the transmission for any user is not continuous. TDMA has TDD and FDD modes.

17 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (5)
TDMA Frame Structure

18 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (6)
TDMA Frame Structure (Cont.) In TDMA, the preamble contains the address and synchronization information that both the base station and the mobiles use to identify each other. Different TDMA standards have different TDMA frame structures.

19 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (7)
Features of TDMA (Cont.) Share a single carrier frequency with several users. Data transmission is not continuous, but occurs in bursts. No duplexers is required since users employ different time slots for transmission and reception. TDMA can allocate different numbers of time slots per frame to different users, allowing bandwidth be supplied on demand to different users.

20 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (8)
Combined used of synchronous TDMA and FDMA

21 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (8)
Asynchronous TDMA: Carrier-Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) Allows a transmitter to access the channel at any time that is not being used by another transmitter.

22 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) (1)
Transmitter may transmit at the same time, in the same channel. Each signal is modified by spreading it over a large bandwidth. This spreading occurs by combining the transmitter signal with a spreading sequence.

23 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) (2)

24 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) (3)

25 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) (4)
Features of CDMA Many users of a CDMA system share the same frequency. The symbol (chip) duration is very short and usually much less than the channel delay spread. The near-far problem occurs at a CDMA RX if an undesired user has a high detected power as compared to the desired user.

26 Frequency Hopping (1) Frequency hopping is a form of FDMA
Each transmitter is allocated a group of channels, known as hop set . The transmitter transmits data in short bursts, choosing one of these channels on which to transmit each burst.

27 Frequency Hopping (2) Time-frequency characteristic of a single transmitter.

28 Frequency Hopping (3) Signal received form a pair of frequency-hopping transmitters.

29 Time Hopping (1) Each bit is transmitted as a single pulse, with the value of j-th bit determined by whether it arrives before or after the reference time tj.

30 Time Hopping (2) TH-PPM Tc t Tf Ts User1 : C(1)=[1 0 0 2] d1=0

31 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (1)
A transmission technique in which a PN code, independent of information data, is employed as a modulation waveform to “spread” the signal energy over a bandwidth much greater than the signal information bandwidth. At the receiver the signal is “despread” using a synchronized replica of the PN code. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)

32 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (2)
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) A carrier is modulated by a digital code in which the code bit rate is much larger than the information signal bit rate. These systems are also called pseudo-noise systems. Also called code division multiple access (CDMA) A short code system uses a PN code length equal to a data symbol. A long system uses a PN code length that is much longer than a data symbol.

33 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (3)
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)

34 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (4)
Basic principle of DSSS For BPSK modulation

35 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (5)
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) It divides available bandwidth into N channels and hops between these channels according to the PN sequence. Fast hopping Slow hopping

36 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (6)
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)

37 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (7)

38 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (8)

39 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (9)

40 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (10)
Performance in the presence of interference Narrowband interference Wideband interference Gaussian noise

41 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (11)

42 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (12)
Narrowband interference

43 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (13)
Wideband interference

44 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (14)
Gaussian noise

45 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (15)
Hybrid FDMA/CDMA (FCDMA): The available wideband spectrum is divided into a number of subspectras with smaller bandwidths. Each of these smaller suchannels becomes a narrowband CDMA system having processing gain lower than the original CDMA system.

46 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (16)
Hybrid Direct Sequence/Frequency Hopped Multiple Access (DS/FHMA) This technique consists of a direct sequence modulated signal whose center frequency is made to hop periodically in a pseudorandom fashion. Having an advantage in that they avoid the near-far effect.

47 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (17)
Time Division Frequency Hopping (TDFH) The subscriber can hop to a new frequency at the start of a new TDMA frame. Has been adopted in GSM.

48 Packet Radio (1) In packet radio (PR) access techniques, many subscribers attempt to access a single channel in an uncoordinated (or minimally coordinated manner. Collision from the simultaneous transmissions of multiple transmitters are detected at the BS, in which case an ACK or NACK signal is broadcast by the BS to alert the desired user of received transmission. PR multiple access is very easy to implement but has low spectral efficiency and may include delays. The subscribers use a contention technique to transmit on a common channel.

49 Packet Radio (2) ALOHA protocols, developed for early satellite systems, allow each subscriber to transmit whenever they have data to sent. The transmitting subscribers listen to the acknowledgement feedback to determine if transmission has been successful or not. If a collision occurs, the subscriber waits a random amount of time, and then transmits the packet. The performance of contention techniques can be evaluated by throughput (T), which is defined as the average number of message successfully transmitted per unit time, and the average delay (D) experienced by a typical message burst.

50 Packet Radio (3) Packet Radio Protocols
, vulnerable period is defined as the time interval during which the packets are susceptible to collisions with transmission form other user. Packet A suffer a collision if other terminals transmit packets during the period to

51 Packet Radio (4) Assume that packet transmissions occur with Poisson distribution having mean arrival rate of packets per second and is the packet duration in seconds. The traffic occupancy or throughput R is given by R is the normalized channel traffic (measured in Erlangs) and if R > 1, then the packets generated by the users exceed the maximum transmission rate of the channel. For reasonable throughput, 0 < R < 1. Under normal loading, the throughput T is the same as the total offered load L. The load L is the sum of the newly generated packets and the retransmitted packets that suffered collisions.

52 Packet Radio (5) The normal throughput is given as the total offered load times the probability of successful transmission, i.e. The probability that n packets are generated by the user population during a given packet duration interval is assumed to Poisson distributed and is given as The probability that zero packets are generated (i.e., no collision) during this interval is given by

53 Packet Radio (6) Type of Access
Contention protocols are categorized as: Random Access: there is no coordination among that users and the messages are transmitted from the users as they arrive at the transmitter. Scheduled Access: based on a coordinated access of users on the channel and the users transmit messages within allotted slots or time intervals. Hybird Access: a combination of random access and scheduled.

54 Packet Radio (7) Pure ALOHA
The pure ALOHA protocol is random access protocol used for data transfer and a user accesses a channel as soon as a message is ready to be transmitted. After a transmission, the user waits for an acknowledgment on either the same channel or a separate feedback channel. In case of collisions, the terminal waits for a random period of time and retransmits the message. For pure ALOHA, the vulnerable period is double the packet duration: ,

55 Packet Radio (8) Slotted ALOHA
In slotted ALOHA, time is divided into equal time slots of length greater than the packet duration . The subscribers each have synchronized clocks and transmit a message only at the beginning of a new time slot. The vulnerable period of slotted ALOHA is only one packet duration, since partial collisions are prevented through synchronization. The probability that no other packets will be generated during the vulnerable period is The throughput for the case of slotted ALOHA is thus given by

56 Packet Radio (9) Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
CSMA protocols are based on the fact that each terminal on the network is able to monitor the status of the channel before transmitting information. In CSMA, detection delay and propagation delay are two important parameters. Detection delay is a function of he receiver hardware and is the time required for a terminal to sense whether or not the channel is idle. Propagation delay is a relative measure of how fast it takes for a packet to travel from a BS to a MS.

57 Packet Radio (10) Several variations of the CSMA strategy
1-persistent CSMA Non-persistent CSMA p-persistent CSMA CSMA/CD Data sense multiple access(DSMA)

58 Packet Radio (11) Reservation Protocols Reservation ALOHA (R-ALOHA)
R-ALOHA is a packet scheme based on time division multiplexing. Two phase: contention phase and transmission phase Mobiles contend the channel in reservation phase (slotted-ALOHA) Mobiles that succeed in making reservation can transmit without interference

59 Packet Radio (12) PRMA (Packet Reservation Multiple Access)
A combination of TDMA and reservation ALOHA Ask channel resource in the talkspurt Release channel resource in the silent gap Permission probability Effect of voice activity detector

60 Packet Radio (13) NC-PRMA (Non-Collision Packet Reservation Multiple Access) The existing users inform the BS about their demands in a non-collision manner (time-frequency signaling scheme)

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