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Statistica per lingegneria e le scienze William Navidi Copyright © 2006 – The McGraw-Hill Companies srl Chapter 1: Sampling and Descriptive Statistics
Statistica per lingegneria e le scienze William Navidi Copyright © 2006 – The McGraw-Hill Companies srl Why Statistics? Uncertainty in repeated scientific measurements Drawing conclusions from data Designing valid experiments and draw reliable conclusions
Statistica per lingegneria e le scienze William Navidi Copyright © 2006 – The McGraw-Hill Companies srl Section 1.1: Sampling Definitions: A population is the entire collection of objects or outcomes about which information is sought. A sample is a subset of a population, containing the objects or outcomes that are actually observed. A simple random sample (SRS) of size n is a sample chosen by a method in which each collection of n population items is equally likely to comprise the sample, just as in the lottery.
Statistica per lingegneria e le scienze William Navidi Copyright © 2006 – The McGraw-Hill Companies srl Simple Random Sampling A SRS is not guaranteed to reflect the population perfectly. SRSs always differ in some ways from each other, occasionally a sample is substantially different from the population. Two different samples from the same population will vary from each other as well. This phenomenon is known as sampling variation.
Statistica per lingegneria e le scienze William Navidi Copyright © 2006 – The McGraw-Hill Companies srl More on SRS Definition: A conceptual population consists of all the values that might possibly have been observed. For example, a geologist weighs a rock several times on a sensitive scale. Each time, the scale gives a slightly different reading. Here the population is conceptual. It consists of all the readings that the scale could in principle produce.
Statistica per lingegneria e le scienze William Navidi Copyright © 2006 – The McGraw-Hill Companies srl SRS (cont.) The items in a sample are independent if knowing the values of some of the items does not help to predict the values of the others. Items in a simple random sample may be treated as independent in most cases encountered in practice. The exception occurs when the population is finite and the sample comprises a substantial fraction (more than 5%) of the population.
Statistica per lingegneria e le scienze William Navidi Copyright © 2006 – The McGraw-Hill Companies srl Types of Data Numerical or quantitative if a numerical quantity is assigned to each item in the sample. Height Weight Age Categorical or qualitative if the sample items are placed into categories. Gender Hair color Zip code
Statistica per lingegneria e le scienze William Navidi Copyright © 2006 – The McGraw-Hill Companies srl Section 1.2: Summary Statistics Sample Mean: Sample Variance: Sample standard deviation is the square root of the sample variance. If X 1, …, X n is a sample, and Y i = a + b X i,where a and b are constants, then Segue…
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