11 Agarose gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA (and RNA) molecules according to size.
12 Electrophoresis: gelelectrophoresis The pieces of DNA move because of the charge on their phosphate groups. They are separated because of their length. With some methods, they can be separated because of their shape. Tutorial on electrophoresis: http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anima tions/content/gelelectrophoresis.htmlhttp://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anima tions/content/gelelectrophoresis.html Animation of electrophoresis: http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/gelelectrophoresis.htm l
13 Ligation of a DNA fragment into a vector using the restriction endonuclease EcoRI and DNA ligase.
14 The transformation of bacteria and the selection of cells with the recombinant vector.
22 Restriction map of pUC18/pUC19 showing the ampicillin resistance gene, the origin of replication, and the multiple cloning site within the lacZ gene.
23 The selection of bacterial colonies containing a recombinant vector (pCU vector + DNA insert) by the selection of white colonies.
24 Cloning using Bacteriophage The lytic life cycle of a bacteriophage.
25 Fig. 3.11 The cloning of human DNA restriction fragments ( ● and ▲ ) into a bacteriophage vector.
26 Fig. 3.12 The use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer DNA into plants.
27 Video: Ti plasmid http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072437316/student_view0/ch apter16/animations.html#
28 Fig. 3.13 Particle gun used for transforming cells with DNA-coated microprojectiles.
29 An animation of a gene gun can be found at: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/courses/H ORT250/animations/Gene%20Gun%20Animat ion/Genegun1.html http://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/courses/H ORT250/animations/Gene%20Gun%20Animat ion/Genegun1.html
30 Fig. 3.14 Microinjection of DNA into pronucleus of a fertilized animal egg.