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Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) 1 EE322 A. Al-Sanie

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Encode Transmit Pulse modulate SampleQuantize Demodulate/ Detect Channel Receive Low-pass filter Decode Pulse waveforms Bit stream Format Digital info. Textual info. Analog info. Textual info. Analog info. Digital info. source sink Formatting and transmission of baseband signal 2 EE322 A. Al-Sanie

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Formatting and transmission of baseband signal – Information (data) rate: – Symbol rate : For real time transmission: Sampling at rate (sampling time=Ts) Quantizing each sampled value to one of the L levels in quantizer. Encoding each q. value to bits (Data bit duration Tb=Ts/l) Encode Pulse modulate SampleQuantize Pulse waveforms (baseband signals) Bit stream (Data bits) Format Digital info. Textual info. Analog info. source Mapping every data bits to a symbol out of M symbols and transmitting a baseband waveform with duration T

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Format analog signals To transform an analog waveform into a form that is compatible with a digital communication system, the following steps are taken: 1.Sampling 2.Quantization and encoding 3.Baseband transmission 4 EE322 A. Al-Sanie

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Sampling Time domainFrequency domain 5 EE322 A. Al-Sanie

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Aliasing effect LP filter Nyquist rate aliasing 6 EE322 A. Al-Sanie

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Sampling theorem Sampling theorem: A bandlimited signal with no spectral components beyond, can be uniquely determined by values sampled at uniform intervals of – The sampling rate, is called Nyquist rate. Sampling process Analog signal Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) signal 7 EE322 A. Al-Sanie

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Quantization Amplitude quantizing: Mapping samples of a continuous amplitude waveform to a finite set of amplitudes. In Out Quantized values Average quantization noise power Signal peak power Signal power to average quantization noise power 8 EE322 A. Al-Sanie

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Encoding (PCM) A uniform linear quantizer is called Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). Pulse code modulation (PCM): Encoding the quantized signals into a digital word (PCM word or codeword). – Each quantized sample is digitally encoded into an l bits codeword where L in the number of quantization levels and 9 EE322 A. Al-Sanie

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10 Example: Quantization

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Quantization error Quantizing error: The difference between the input and output of a quantizer + AGC Qauntizer Process of quantizing noiseModel of quantizing noise 11 EE322 A. Al-Sanie

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PCM waveforms PCM waveforms category: Phase encoded Multilevel binary Nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) Return-to-zero (RZ) 1 0 1 1 0 0 T 2T 3T 4T 5T +V -V +V 0 +V 0 -V 1 0 1 1 0 0 T 2T 3T 4T 5T +V -V +V -V +V 0 -V NRZ-L Unipolar-RZ Bipolar-RZ Manchester Miller Dicode NRZ 12 EE322 A. Al-Sanie

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PCM waveforms … Criteria for comparing and selecting PCM waveforms: – Spectral characteristics (power spectral density and bandwidth efficiency) – Bit synchronization capability – Error detection capability – Interference and noise immunity – Implementation cost and complexity 13 EE322 A. Al-Sanie

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Baseband transmission To transmit information through physical channels, PCM sequences (codewords) are transformed to pulses (waveforms). – Each waveform carries a symbol from a set of size M. – Each transmit symbol represents bits of the PCM words. – PCM waveforms (line codes) are used for binary symbols (M=2). – M-ary pulse modulation are used for non-binary symbols (M>2). 14 EE322 A. Al-Sanie

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Example: 4-PAM EE322 A. Al-Sanie 15 For M-PAM: For 4-PAM: T=2T b R s =R b /2 R s is the symbol rate

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EE322 A. Al-Sanie 16

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