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Contraction and Excitation of Smooth Muscle

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1 Contraction and Excitation of Smooth Muscle
Chapter 8: Contraction and Excitation of Smooth Muscle Slides by Thomas H. Adair, PhD

2 Bio 411 Relevant Info: Today – smooth muscle (Guyton Ch. 8).
Quiz at end of class over last week’s material. Wednesday – finish smooth muscle, begin overview of nervous system/spinal nerves/cranial nerves (Moore, Introduction pp ) Next quiz – Friday Oct. 24 Lab tomorrow – continue working on pectoral region. May start abdominal region (dissector pp ).

3 Types of Smooth Muscle Mononucleate cells with no striations (smooth in polarized light). Form muscular walls of hollow organs - gut, airways, blood vessels & urogenital system 2 sorts of organization Unitary: sheets of electrically coupled cells which act in unison (a ‘syncytium’ e.g. gut and bladder) Multiunit: tissue made of discrete bundles of cells (no coupling) which are densely innervated and contract only in response to its innervation (e.g. iris, piloerectors) Figure 8-1; Guyton & Hall

4 Special features of smooth muscle
Can operate over large range of lengths Is very energy efficient Can maintain force for long periods (hours, days, weeks) via latch state Can be myogenic (spontaneously active) Has Ca2+ action potentials. Ca entering through channels is a very important source of calcium Poorly developed SR intermediate filament (form structural backbone) thick filament thin filament dense body (membrane dense area analogous to Z discs) mechanical junction (coupling cells) gap junction (electrical coupling)

5 Neuromuscular Junction
Smooth Muscle Neuromuscular Junction Important points Autonomic nerve fibers branch and form “diffuse junctions” with underlying smooth muscle fibers. Varicosities in the terminal axons contain neurotransmitter. Excitation is transmitted by Ca action potential or simple diffusion of Ca into fiber. Figure 8-3; Guyton & Hall

6 Contraction-Relaxation – myosin based regulation
Ca2+ Important points: Initiated by calcium Calcium binds to calmodulin (instead of troponin as in skm) Ca-calmodulin-MLCK complex leads to phosphorylation of MLC (requires 1 ATP) MLC is part of myosin head Phosphorylated myosin head binds to actin and power stroke occurs automatically A second ATP is required to release myosin head from actin Cross-bridge cycling requires both MLCK and MLCP Ca2+ calmodulin Relaxation MLC inactive (dephosphorylated) MLCP MLCK MLC active (phosphorylated) Contraction MLCK, myosin light chain kinase MLCP, myosin light chain phosphatase

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