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Enhanced ER modeling techniques TransparenciesChapter 11 Enhanced ER modeling techniques Transparencies © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
© Pearson Education Limited, 2004Chapter 11 - Objectives The limitations of the basic ER modeling concepts and the requirements to model more complex applications using enhanced data modeling concepts. The main concepts associated with the Enhanced Entity–Relationship (EER) model called specialization/generalization. © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
© Pearson Education Limited, 2004Chapter 11 - Objectives A notation for displaying specialization/generalization in an EER diagram. How to create tables that represent specialization/generalization in an EER model. © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
© Pearson Education Limited, 2004The EER model Basic concepts are often perfectly adequate for the representation of the data requirements for many different database applications. However, basic concepts can be limiting when modeling more complex database applications with a large amount of data and/or data with complex interrelationships. © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
© Pearson Education Limited, 2004The EER model Stimulated need to develop additional ‘semantic’ modeling concepts. Original ER model with additional semantic concepts is referred to as the Enhanced Entity–Relationship (EER) model. © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
© Pearson Education Limited, 2004The EER model One of the most useful concepts associated with the EER model is called specialization/generalization. © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Specialization/generalizationAssociated with special types of entities known as superclasses and subclasses, and the process of attribute inheritance. © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Superclasses and subclassesAn entity that includes one or more distinct groupings of its occurrences, which require to be represented in a data model. Subclass A distinct grouping of occurrences of an entity type, which require to be represented in a data model. © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Superclass/subclass relationshipSuperclass/subclass relationship is one-to-one (1:1). Each member of a subclass is also a member of the superclass but has a distinct role. © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Superclasses and subclassesWe can use superclasses and subclasses to avoid describing different types of entities with possibly different attributes within a single entity. Can also show relationships that are only associated with particular subclasses and not with superclass. © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
AllStaff table holding details of all staff© Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Attribute inheritanceAn entity occurrence in a subclass represents the same ‘real world’ object as in the superclass. Hence, a member of a subclass inherits those attributes associated with the superclass, but may also have subclass-specific attributes. © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Specialization/generalizationThe process of maximizing the differences between members of an entity by identifying their distinguishing characteristics. Generalization The process of minimizing the differences between entities by identifying their common characteristics. © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Staff entity with subclasses representing job roles© Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Shared subclass and a subclass with its own subclass© Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Constraints on specialization/ generalizationTwo constraints may apply to a specialization/generalization called participation constraints and disjoint constraints. Participation constraint Determines whether every occurrence in the superclass must participate as a member of a subclass. May be mandatory or optional. © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Vehicle entity into vehicle types© Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Constraints on specialization / generalizationDisjoint constraint Describes the relationship between members of the subclasses and indicates whether it is possible for a member of a superclass to be a member of one, or more than one, subclass. May be disjoint or nondisjoint © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Constraints on specialization / generalizationThere are four categories of constraints of specialization and generalization: mandatory and disjoint optional and disjoint mandatory and nondisjoint optional and nondisjoint © Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Creating tables to represent specialization/generalization© Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Tables representing Staff and the Branch entities© Pearson Education Limited, 2004
Tables representing the Vehicle entity© Pearson Education Limited, 2004
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