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Chapter 12 Enhanced Entity-Relationship Modeling Transparencies © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
2 Chapter 12 - Objectives u Limitations of basic concepts of the ER model and requirements to represent more complex applications using additional data modeling concepts. u Most useful additional data modeling concept of Enhanced ER (EER) model is called specialization/generalization. u A diagrammatic technique for displaying specialization/generalization in an EER diagram using UML. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
3 Enhanced Entity-Relationship Model u Since 1980s there has been an increase in emergence of new database applications with more demanding requirements. u Basic concepts of ER modeling are not sufficient to represent requirements of newer, more complex applications. u Response is development of additional ‘semantic’ modeling concepts. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
4 The Enhanced Entity-Relationship Model u Semantic concepts are incorporated into the original ER model and called the Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) model. u Examples of additional concept of EER model is called specialization / generalization. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
5 Specialization / Generalization u Superclass –An entity type that includes one or more distinct subgroupings of its occurrences. u Subclass –A distinct subgrouping of occurrences of an entity type. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
6 Specialization / Generalization u Superclass/subclass relationship is one- to-one (1:1). u Superclass may contain overlapping or distinct subclasses. u Not all members of a superclass need be a member of a subclass. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
7 Specialization / Generalization u Attribute Inheritance –An entity in a subclass represents same ‘real world’ object as in superclass, and may possess subclass-specific attributes, as well as those associated with the superclass. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
8 Specialization / Generalization u Specialization –Process of maximizing differences between members of an entity by identifying their distinguishing characteristics. u Generalization –Process of minimizing differences between entities by identifying their common characteristics. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
9 AllStaff relation holding details of all staff © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
10 Specialization/generalization of Staff entity into subclasses representing job roles © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
11 Specialization/generalization of Staff entity into job roles and contracts of employment © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
12 EER diagram with shared subclass and subclass with its own subclass © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
13 Constraints on Specialization / Generalization u Two constraints that may apply to a specialization/generalization: –participation constraints –disjoint constraints. u Participation constraint –Determines whether every member in superclass must participate as a member of a subclass. –May be mandatory or optional. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
14 Constraints on Specialization / Generalization u Disjoint constraint –Describes relationship between members of the subclasses and indicates whether member of a superclass can be a member of one, or more than one, subclass. –May be disjoint or nondisjoint. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
15 Constraints on Specialization / Generalization u There are four categories of constraints of specialization and generalization: –mandatory and disjoint –optional and disjoint –mandatory and nondisjoint –optional and nondisjoint. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
16 DreamHome worked example - Staff Superclass with Supervisor and Manager subclasses © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
17 DreamHome worked example - Owner Superclass with PrivateOwner and BusinessOwner subclasses © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
18 DreamHome worked example - Person superclass with Staff, PrivateOwner, and Client subclasses © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
Enhanced Entity-Relationship Modeling
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Copyright © 2007 Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe Chapter 4 Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Modeling.
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1 Enhanced Entity Relationship Modelling EER Model Concepts Includes all basic ER modeling concepts Additional concepts: subclasses/superclasses specialization/generalization.
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