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Biological classifications Alessandro Minelli University of Padova.

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Presentation on theme: "Biological classifications Alessandro Minelli University of Padova."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biological classifications Alessandro Minelli University of Padova

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4 Classification

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7 Biological classifications Species, the units of classification Groups within groups – characters: problems of homology – taxa: arbitrary vs. natural units – ranks, abolute or relative? Taxon names

8 Biological classifications Species, the units of classification Groups within groups –characters: problems of homology – taxa: arbitrary vs. natural units – ranks, abolute or relative? Taxon names

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10 Biological classifications Species, the units of classification Groups within groups –characters: problems of homology – taxa: arbitrary vs. natural units – ranks, abolute or relative? Taxon names

11 The taxonomic hierarchy phylum class order family genus species subspecies

12 Biological classifications Species, the units of classification Groups within groups –characters: problems of homology – taxa: arbitrary vs. natural units – ranks, abolute or relative? Taxon names

13 P. Belon 1555 Characters: how many? which ones?

14 Homologue the same organ underevery variety of form and function Owen, 1843

15 Analogy

16 The origin of species (1859) Charles Darwin

17 Ernst Haeckel

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19 Willi Hennig Phylogenetic systematics (1966)

20 Synapomorphy = shared derived character state fin limb

21 cladistic methods of Renaissance scholars Angelo Poliziano

22 monophyletic group

23 paraphyletic group

24 polyphyletic group

25 Biological classifications Species, the units of classification Groups within groups –characters: problems of homology – taxa: arbitrary vs. natural units – ranks, abolute or relative? Taxon names

26 Invertebrates Vertebrates

27 Protostomes Deuterostomes

28 Birds Reptiles

29 Testudinates Archosaurs Lepidosaurs

30 Biological classifications Species, the units of classification Groups within groups –characters: problems of homology – taxa: arbitrary vs. natural units – ranks, abolute or relative? Taxon names

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32 absolute ranks ? Equus Conus genus

33 Mammals Gastropods class

34 Biological classifications Species, the units of classification Groups within groups –characters: problems of homology – taxa: arbitrary vs. natural units – ranks, abolute or relative? Taxon names

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37 Biological classifications (the dark side)

38 Bad taxonomy can kill

39 Bad taxonomy can kill species

40 Bad taxonomy can kill thought

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42 how many species are there?

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45 Biological classifications


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