MIS DATABASE SYSTEMS, DATA WAREHOUSES, AND DATA MARTS MBNA
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1 MIS DATABASE SYSTEMS, DATA WAREHOUSES, AND DATA MARTS MBNA CHAPTER 3DATABASE SYSTEMS, DATA WAREHOUSES, AND DATA MARTSHossein BIDGOLIMBNAHong Kong AirportA not so perfect match
2 Chapter 3 Database Systems, Data Warehouses, and Data Marts l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e sLO1 Define a database and a database management system.LO2 Explain logical database design and the relational database model.LO3 Define the components of a database management system.LO4 Summarize recent trends in database design and use.LO5 Explain the components and functions of a data warehouse.
3 l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s (cont’d.) Chapter 3 Database Systems, Data Warehouses, and Data Martsl e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s (cont’d.)LO6 Describe the functions of a data mart.
4 Managing data and information MBNAManaging data and informationUsually too much data rather than too little in organizationsHow does an organization organize all this data and information?____________ a collection of integrated and related files_____________________________
5 What is ____________ Technology ? A collection of related data organized in a way that makes it valuable and usefulAllows organizations to retrieve, store, and analyze information easilyIs vital to an organization’s success in running operations and making decisionsCritical component of information systemsAny type of analysis that’s done is based on data available in the database
7 Databases (cont’d.) Critical component of information systems Any type of analysis that’s done is based on data available in the databaseDatabase management system (DBMS)Creating, storing, maintaining, and accessing database filesAdvantages over a flat file system
8 The Traditional Approach PayrollGradesGradesStudent TuitionStudent TuitionParkingParkingThe Traditional Approach to Data ManagementU of L example
9 Database management system The Database ApproachPayrollGradesPayrollGradesTuitionParkingDatabase management systemTuitionParkingThe Database Approach to Data Management
11 Exhibit 3.2Interaction between the user, DBMC, and Database
12 Types of Data in a Database Internal dataCollected within organizationExternal dataSourcesCompetitors, customers, and suppliersDistribution networksEconomicGovernment regulationsLabor and population statisticsTax recordsfunctional information systems
13 BI in Action: Law Enforcement Business intelligence (BI)Used in law enforcement as well as in the business worldRichmond, VirginiaSystem generates BI reports that help pinpoint crime patternsAllocate manpower to days and locations where crime likely to occur
14 Methods for Accessing Files Sequential file structureRecords organized and processed in numerical or sequential orderOrganized based on a “primary key”Usually used for backup and archive filesBecause they need updating only rarelyRandom access file structureRecords can be accessed in any orderFast and very effective when a small number of records need to be processed daily or weekly
15 Methods for Accessing Files (cont’d.) Indexed sequential access method (ISAM)Records accessed sequentially or randomlyDepending on the number being accessedIndexed accessUses an index structure with two parts:Indexed valuePointer to the disk location of the record matching the indexed value
16 Logical Database Design Physical viewHow data is stored on and retrieved from storage mediaLogical viewHow information appears to usersHow it can be organized and retrievedCan be more than one logical view
17 Logical Database Design (cont’d.) Data modelDetermines how data is created, represented, organizedIncludesData structureOperationsIntegrity rulesHierarchical modelRelationships between records form a treelike structure
21 The Relational Model Relational model Data dictionary Uses a two-dimensional table of rows and columns of dataData dictionaryField nameField data typeDefault valueValidation ruleA relational model uses a two- dimensional table of rows and columns of data. Rows are records ( also called “ tuples”), and columns are fi elds ( also referred to as “ attributes”). To begin designing a relational database, you must defi ne the logical structure by defi ning each table and the fi elds in it. For example, the Students table has fi elds for StudentID, StudentFirstName, StudentLast- Name, and so forth. The collection of these defi nitions is stored in the data dictionary. The data dictionary can also store other defi nitions, such as data types for fi elds, default values for fi elds, and validation rules for data in each fi eld, as described in the following list:
22 The Relational Model - Example Primary keyUnique identifierForeign keyEstablishes relationships between tablesNormalizationImproves database efficiencyEliminates redundant dataTo improve database effi ciency, a process called normalization is used, which eliminates redundant data ( storing customer names in only one table, for example) and ensures that only related data is stored in a table.
23 The Relational Model Data retrieval Select Project Join Intersection UnionDifference
24 Components of a DBMS Database engine Data definition Data manipulation Application generationData administration
25 Database Engine Heart of DBMS software Responsible for data storage, manipulation, and retrievalConverts logical requests from users into their physical equivalents
26 Data Definition Create and maintain the data dictionary Define the structure of files in a databaseAdding fieldsDeleting fieldsChanging field sizeChanging data type
27 Data ManipulationAdd, delete, modify, and retrieve records from a databaseQuery languageStructured Query Language (SQL)Standard fourth-generation query language used by many DBMS packagesSELECT statementQuery by example (QBE)Construct statement of query formsGraphical interface
28 Application Generation Design elements of an application using a databaseData entry screensInteractive menusInterfaces with other programming languages
29 Data Administration Used for: Create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) Backup and recoverySecurityChange managementCreate, read, update, and delete (CRUD)Database administrator (DBA)Individual or departmentResponsibilities
30 Recent Trends in Database Design and Use Data-driven Web sitesDistributed databasesClient/server databasesObject-oriented databases
31 Data Warehouses Data warehouse Multidimensional data Hong Kong AirportData warehouseCollection of data used to support decision-making applications and generate business intelligenceMultidimensional dataList the Different Databases that Hong Kong Airport would utilize?
33 Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Mining Data warehouse: collects business information from many sources in the enterpriseData mart: a subset of a data warehouseData mining: an information-analysis tool for automated discovery of patterns and relationships in a data warehouse or a data martOnline Analytical Processing -Graphical software tools that provide complex analysis of data stored in a database
34 Exhibit 3.10Slicing and Dicing DataData warehouses are not transaction-oriented.Data warehouses support online analytical processing (OLAP).
35 A not so perfect match A not so perfect match With the increasing power of Data mining techniques, comes ever increasing and reaching uses of this powerful technology.1. What are the benefits of DNA databases?2. What problems do DNA databases pose?3. Who should be included in a national DNA database? Should it be limited to convicted felons?4. Who should be able to use DNA databases?
36 Summary Databases Data warehouses and data marts Accessing files Design principlesComponentsRecent trendsData warehouses and data marts