Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 2 Planning for Staffing Determine future requirements (demand) Job analysis (what skills needed) Organization analysis (how many, what, when, where) Determine future availabilities (supply) Organization analysis (what do we have?) Environmental scanning (what’s out there?) Develop plans to close any gaps Implement plans Evaluate both plans and plan implementation Performance appraisal + HR information systems
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 4 Levels of Education: Memphis /Shelby County Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, American Community Survey (2006) For individuals aged 25+
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 5 Strategic Questions These issues may apply to the entire organization or may vary by job, area, time The issues: Organizational life cycle Permanent vs. contingent workforce Selection vs. training Exceptional vs. acceptable workforce Internal vs. external staffing Specific vs. general competencies
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 6 Staffing and the Organizational Life Cycle Source: Cascio, 2006, p. 234 EmbryonicHigh-GrowthMatureAging EntrepreneursEntrepreneurs for growth, but growth directors who can build stable management systems Bureaucrats who are comfortable with repetition and who can develop economies of scale Entrepreneurs who will cut and reorganize for survival Organization’s Development Stage Selection Strategy
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 7 The Flexible Workforce Available from: Part-time, temporary and seasonal employees Temporary agencies Independent contractors and consultants Issues to consider: Cost Legal considerations Flexibility to meet an uncertain workload or rapidly changing conditions Loyalty and commitment issues Lack of control Legal issues
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 8 Contingent Employment (2005) More
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 9 Selection vs. Training How critical is the job? Does the organization have the necessary resources (time and money) to train employees? Are skills available outside the organization? Are skills organization specific? How important is retention?
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 10 Exceptional vs. Acceptable Workforce How much are we willing to pay for quality? Is “OK” ever good enough?
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 11 External Staffing New KSAOs Promote increased diversity Large labor pool Employee have needed skills Employee morale Time consuming Expensive Orientation needed Internal vs. External Staffing Internal Staffing Employee morale Quick Less expensive Little orientation needed No new KSAOs Perpetuate current lack of diversity Smaller labor market Skills may not be present
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 12 Specific vs. General Competencies Specific Competencies Select the KSAOs needed for the specific job The person-job match General Competencies Select KSAOs needed for a variety of jobs flexibility,adaptability ability to learn communications skills mathematical skills The person- organization match
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 13 The Person - Job Match HR Outcomes Attraction Performance Retention Attendance Satisfaction Other Person KSAOs Motivation Job Requirements Rewards
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 14 The Person-Organization Match HR Outcomes Attraction Performance Retention Attendance Satisfaction Other Person KSAOs Motivation Job Requirements Rewards Other Duties Future Jobs Org. Culture Multiple Jobs
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 15 Defining Culture What is it? “...the shared patterns of thought, belief, feelings, and values that result from shared experience and common learning” “system of shared meaning” “The social glue that holds the organization together” “The pattern of basic assumptions a given group has invented, discovered, or developed in learning to adapt to both its external and internal environments” (Cascio, p. 235)
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 16 Layers of Culture Symbols Rituals Heroes Values Practices Formal expressions of philosophy & culture Promotion criteria (esp. for key jobs) What management pays attention to (measures and controls) Stories, legends and myths
Fall 2008MGMT 420 | StaffingPage 17 The Staffing Process Recruitment Selection Initial screening Interview, testing, other tools Orientation Placement * Employment Training Performance management Separation Voluntary separation Termination Downsizing Retirement Orientation Employment Recruitment Selection Separation Placement * For some hires