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1 Fundamentals Suspension & 4-Wheel Alignment. 2 Why Alignment? All Wheels must steer correctly in all directions.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Fundamentals Suspension & 4-Wheel Alignment. 2 Why Alignment? All Wheels must steer correctly in all directions."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Fundamentals Suspension & 4-Wheel Alignment

2 2 Why Alignment? All Wheels must steer correctly in all directions

3 3 How does a car Get out of alignment? Cars do not get out of alignment!! Something Happens!! Worn Parts Bent or Broken Parts Somebody Set it Wrong Others???

4 4 Suspension Types

5 5 Independent Suspensions

6 6

7 7 Suspension Types

8 8 Independent Suspensions

9 9

10 10 Independent Suspensions

11 11 Independent Suspensions

12 12 Independent Suspensions

13 13 Springs Coil Spring Torsion Bars Air Spring Transverse Leaf (Composite Material) Multi-Leaf

14 14 Torsion Bars

15 15 Torsion Bars

16 16 Coil Springs Spring Rate

17 17 Coil Springs Spring Rate

18 18 Coil Springs Spring Rate

19 19 Coil Springs Spring Rate

20 20 Coil Springs Spring Rate

21 21 Leaf Springs Transverse Leaf (Composite Material) Multi-Leaf

22 22 Air Springs Note: Must turn system off on Ford Products

23 23 Shock Absorber Principle Without DampeningWith Dampening Piston Rod Seal Reserve Fluid Piston / Valving Fluid Under Pressure Base Valve

24 24 Shock Absorber Principle

25 25 Shock Absorber Principle

26 26 Shock Absorber Principle

27 27 Shock Absorber Principle

28 28 Control Arm Bushings Metal BushingRubber Bushing Inner Pivot Points

29 29 Checking Ball Joints With Spring on the Lower Control Arm

30 30 Checking Ball Joints With Spring on the Upper Control Arm

31 31 Wear Indicator Ball Joints Protruding = GOOD

32 32 Strut Rod

33 33 Stabilizer Bar / Sway Bar

34 34 Steering Linkages Parallellogram Cross Steer Haltenberger Center Steer Rack and Pinion

35 35 Steering Gear Principle

36 36 Pitman Arm

37 37 Idler Arm

38 38 Idler Arm Check 1/4 25 lbs

39 39 Center Link

40 40 Tie Rods / Ends / Sleeves

41 41 Tie Rod Tightening Incorrect Clamp Alignment Correct Clamp Alignment Tie Rod Stud Alignment IncorrectCorrect

42 42 Steering Systems Compared Parallelogram Rack & Pinion

43 43 Rack & Pinion Principle Rack Pinion

44 44 Power Rack & Pinion System Power Steering Pump Fluid pressure routed by steering Return Fluid displaced by the piston Spool Valve Return Fluid

45 45 Pre-Alignment Inspection Dry Park Check Steering Linkage Parts Sway Bar System Ride Height Control Arm Bushings Wear Indicator Ball Joints Tire Size and Pressure Raised Position Load Carrying Ball Joints Wheel Bearings

46 46 Tire Wear Pattern Inspection Even Tread Wear Center Tread Wear Both Shoulder Tread Wear Feathered or Sawtooth Tread Wear Single Shoulder Tread Wear

47 47 Ride Height ä Check Spec Manual for Specs and Measurement Point

48 48 Camber Definition ä Lean IN = Negative ä Lean OUT = Positive Tire C/L Vertical

49 49 Camber Definition Outside Tire WearInside Tire Wear Negative Positive Zero

50 50 Camber Pull ä Pulls to the side having the most Camber 28 27

51 51 Typical Single Point Adjustments

52 52 Typical Dual Point Camber Adjustments

53 53 Asymmetric Control Arms Caster Adjustment Camber Adjustment

54 54 Caster Definition ä Rearward Tilt = Positive ä Forward Tilt = Negative Steering Pivot Centerline Vertical

55 55 Caster Definition Excessive Positive = Hard Steering Excessive Negative = Instability Adjust under normal load or Elevated Pulls to side having the least Caster Zero Caster Negative Caster Positive Caster

56 56 Caster Adjustment Methods

57 57 Shim Calculations ShimCamberCaster SizeChange Change 1/8"1/2 deg1 deg 1/16"1/4 deg1/2 deg 1/32"1/8 deg 1/4 deg 1/64"1/16 deg Reading Specifications Amount of Change Shims Required CAMBER CASTER Combined Shim Amounts

58 58 Shim Calculations Reading Specifications Amount of Change Shims Required CAMBER CASTER Combined Shim Amounts /8 out 1/ out 1/8 ShimCamberCaster SizeChange Change 1/8"1/2 deg1 deg 1/16"1/4 deg1/2 deg 1/32"1/8 deg 1/4 deg 1/64"1/16 deg

59 59 Shim Calculations Reading Specifications Amount of Change Shims Required CAMBER CASTER Combined Shim Amounts /8 in 1/16 out 1/16 in 1/16 out 1/16 ShimCamberCaster SizeChange Change 1/8"1/2 deg1 deg 1/16"1/4 deg1/2 deg 1/32"1/8 deg 1/4 deg 1/64"1/16 deg

60 60 Shim Calculations Reading Specifications Amount of Change Shims Required CAMBER CASTER Combined Shim Amounts /8 in 1/ /8 in 1/16 out 1/16 in 3/16 in 1/16 ShimCamberCaster SizeChange Change 1/8"1/2 deg1 deg 1/16"1/4 deg1/2 deg 1/32"1/8 deg 1/4 deg 1/64"1/16 deg

61 61 Using A-Arm Adjust Software

62 62 Total Toe ä The difference in the distance measured between the leading edges and trailing edges of the wheel and tire assembly, at spindle height. Total Toe

63 63 Toe Conditions

64 64 Adjusting Toe 1. Level and Lock Steering Wheel 2. Loosen Tie Rod Adjust Sleeves 3. Adjust One Side to Preferred 3. Adjust the Other Side to Preferred 4. Unlock Steering Wheel, Re-center 5. Readjust Toe if Necessary

65 65 Thrust Angle Geometric Centerline Thrustline

66 66 Thrust Angle The Thrust Angle dictates the vehicle's roll direction. The driver steers, in the direction of the Thrust Angle, to compensate for the out of thrust condition. This results in the steering wheel being cocked, in the direction of the Thrust Angle, when the vehicle is in motion.

67 67 Steering Axis Inclination ä The tilt inward of a line drawn between the wheel's pivot points, as viewed from the front of the car, compared to true vertical

68 68 Scrub Radius

69 69 Wide Rim Effect Scrub Radius changes with rim width & offset

70 70 Steering Axis Inclination Spindle Arc

71 71 Spindle Diagnostics Camber is OK SAI is OK Incld Angle is OK Spindle is OK Included Angle SAI Camber Vertical

72 72 Spindle Diagnostics Camber is Less SAI is High Incld Angle is OK Adjust Camber Spindle is OK Included Angle SAI Camber Vertical

73 73 Spindle Diagnostics Camber is OK SAI is High Incld Angle is High Spindle is Damaged Included Angle SAI Camber Vertical

74 74 Spindle Diagnostics Camber is OK SAI is Less Incld Angle is Less Spindle is Damaged Included Angle SAI Camber Vertical

75 75 FWD Engine Cradle Lower Inner Pivots Upper Inner Pivots

76 76 FWD Engine Cradle Camber is High SAI is Low Incld Angle is OK Camber is Low SAI is High Incld Angle is OK Cradle Shifted

77 77 Using Cradle Adjust Software

78 78 Toe Out On Turns When a car steers into a turn, the two steerable tires must turn on two different size circles. The entire car turns about a common center. This means that the two steerable tires must turn on two different size angles, with the tire on the inside of the turn having the greater angle All Wheels Turn on a Common Center 20 o turn 18 o turn

79 79 Toe Out On Turns Check Specifications for Inside and Outside Turn Angle 18 o turn 20 o turn

80 80 Setback Setback occurs when one wheel on an axle is set slightly behind the other wheel on the axle.


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