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Planet Scale Software Updates Christos Gkantsidis Thomas Karagiannis Pablo Rodriguez Milan Vojnović SIGCOMM 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Planet Scale Software Updates Christos Gkantsidis Thomas Karagiannis Pablo Rodriguez Milan Vojnović SIGCOMM 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Planet Scale Software Updates Christos Gkantsidis Thomas Karagiannis Pablo Rodriguez Milan Vojnović SIGCOMM 2006

2 Patches Patches (program snippets) upgrade existing software with the intention to: Fix security vulnerabilities Update drivers Distribute new virus definitions Release new functionality Patches are crucial to maintain high level of protection, since they offer updated service and applications _

3 Problems with Dissemination of software updates Large scale and fast dissemination of software updates to millions of Internet users During certain period of times, patch distribution can account for a large fraction of the traffic on servers and across Internet Growing popularity of software update requires us to know more about: Process of creating and releasing pathes Traffic characteristics of patch distribution Potential of alternative distribution strategies _

4 Motivation and Contribution Goal: Find general principles and properties that can be used as guidelines to design better architect fast and cost effective planet scale patch dissemination Contributions: Clustering patches into groups improves effectiveness of system Approximately 80% of IPs appear during the first day of a patch release Percentage of machines that are always online is approximately 20% Computers using update service seem to be highly updated Using an existing cache decreases workload on servers by 25% to 35%, while full cache by ISP would result in almost %70 P2P can considerably reduce the load on the server and P2P locality can reduce inter-ISP traffic while disseminating patches

5 Outline Introduction System and Data Description Characteristics of Patches User Characterization Patch Dissemination Strategies Conclusion

6 Windows Update System System Description: Update servers: Query for new updates Distribution servers: Download updates _

7 Traffic on Update and Distribution servers Number of update queries and corresponding downloads over three days

8 Dataset Characteristics Some definitions: Knowledge Base: Set of patches to fix a vulnerability Service packs: large collection of knowledge bases Datasets: _

9 Characteristics of Patches Two ways to update a file: Replacing actual file: Download and install the files that are required to be updated Using a Patch file: Patch file(delta) decribes difference between the existing version in the user computer and the newest version More efficient to send patches instead of file itself  XP SP2 Mean File size=73.2 KB, while Mean Patch Size=32.9 KB

10 Characteristics of Patches Designing efficient mechanisms requires: Number and size of files affected Frequency of update release Relation between the individual patches Problem: User machine can have a large set of configuration states due to patching at different times Solution: Examine relationships between updates for individual files and cluster the ones which are updated together

11 Clustering of Files Used traces of requests for Windows XP SP2 distribution and full history of updates in XP source tree (Data Set-II and Set-IV) To quantify set of files that are clustered together, compute cosine correlation between any pair of files i and j using: Assumed that files are correlated if >0.9 _

12 Clustering of Files Dataset has requests for 2029 files 26 non-overlapping groups identified for 2003 files The 5 largest groups account for 1877 files and responsible for 95% of the requests _ Group size distribution for File Clustering Number of requests satisfied by publishing an increasing number of groups for File Clustering

13 Clustering of patches Repeated same analysis with patch dataset For 3379 patches, identified 125 groups for 3188 patches Analysis indicates that: Decreasing clustering efficiency Increasing complexity of system _ Group size distribution for Patch ClusteringNumber of requests satisfied by publishing an increasing number of groups for File Clustering

14 User Characterization Traffic Properties Extract arrival patterns of update queries Queries arrive from two types of machines: Always online machines(AOM): Have an automatic update service that periodically queries for updates Non-AOM: Go ON and OFF and stay offline for a period greater than pre-specified query interval

15 Distinct IPs over time Examined aggregate volume of user queries with respect to distinct IPs using Set-I Approximately 80% of observed IPs appear within the first day Number of fresh IPs within a day decreases abruptly with number of days since initial observation day _ Rate of distinct IPs observed over three days (Peaks are due to the local time differences)

16 Time-of-day effects Europe exhibits the largest query arrival rates at the beginning and at the end of the day, due to inititial observation time Peak of North America is within interval 13:00 to 16:00 hours _ Fraction of distinct IPs per continent observed within the first day versus time

17 Uniformity and burstiness of queries For 50% of the ASes that account for more than 90% of distinct IP population, uniformity of query arrival is not obtained Burstiness is in many cases larger if the AS-aggregate query rates are uniform in time _ Number of queries for two European ISPs in the same country over time. Two geographically collocated ISPs results in dissimilar query arrival pattern within the day because of different profiles of subscribers. (Residential  ISP 1 vs. Corporate  ISP 2 )

18 Estimated Always on-line Machines Important since they can be instantaneously patched using an ideal push patching system Approximately 20% of the population is always online thus could be patched immediately. _ Estimated percentage of distinct IPs classified as AOM per country versus the total number of distinct IPs per country

19 Frequency of computer updates How up-to-date computers are kept around the world US and Japan users(90%) keep their machines highly updated Percentage in China or France is 50-70% _ Distribution of the number of requests for different delta sizes across different countries

20 Frequency of computer updates 90% of the population is highly updated. Importance of automatic patching schemes: During SP2 distribution, the number of users that were updated with most recent updates is less than 5%, with 22% of users updating from SP1 versions and 60% from XP RTM versions _ Requests per delta included in SP2

21 Patch Dissemination Strategies Alternative update delivery strategies: Caching Peer-to-Peer Peer-to-Peer with locality To evaluate the alternative strategies, assumed that hosts are partioned into groups called subnets Effects of alternative policies in reducing: Server load Inter-subnet traffic _

22 Caching-Web Caching Currently deployed web caches are used for update dissemination Load reduction at the server( α ): Experimental results: _ : Fraction of updates needed in subnets covered by caches : Mean number of updates per subnet over subnets that deploy caches

23 Caching-Full Deployment Goal:An ideal caching deployment (μ=1) If every subnet has a cache, the server needs to serve at most as many copies of an update as the number of subnets Using the dataset Set-II (manual downloads), For file distribution S=4.18  α = 76% For delta distribution S=3.01  α = 67% _

24 Peer-to-Peer P2P is attactive to disseminate update Advantages: Self scalable Capacity increases with number of users Copes well with flash-crowds Challenges: Average patch size is small Potentially large set of patches Multiple versions per patch Secure and Timely patch delivery Protecting user privacy Only if a large number of peers target the same version of the same patch at the same time, then significant savings for content provider and end-users

25 Peer-to-Peer with Locality Augment peer matching algorithm to give preference to “local” connections Experiments: Estimate amount of data downloaded from remote subnets and amount of data uploaded to other subnets performed trace-driven simulations to estimate the workload reduction Findings: Locality decreases the amount of data uploaded per subnet by a factor that decreases exponentially with the mean number of active users per subnet With locality, the ratio of uploads to downloads per subnet increases as a function of the size of the subnet

26 Comparison of Strategies Aggregate server load for the distribution of one patch with (i) client-server; (ii) caching; (iii) p2p with upload time equal to download time; (iv) p2p with upload time twice as download time and (v) p2p with uploaded data as much as downloaded(full).

27 Conclusion Characterized a large commercial update service(WU) Patch distribution systems Use a near-push functionality Have distinct traffic patterns Require minimun delivery time Automatic software updating is one of the prominent architectures To reduce complexity, patches can be clustered into groups Evaluated applicability of caching and P2P to disseminate patches P2P have great potential for fast and effective patch delivery

28 Comments Pros Includes a good motivation, experiments, practical usage for companies, theory and math… Emphasizing how important having a good dataset is Well organized The ideas are summarized before getting deeper into the details Figures explain most of the written stuff Cons Some of the formulas given were too abstract Too many references to technical report Except appendix, no difference between paper and technical report

29 Happy End! Thank you for your patience!

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